Mahata Phule’s Akhandadi Kavvya Rachna

AKHANDADI KAVVYA ~ Jotirao Govindrao Phule

Translated By

Sunil Raosaheb Raut

A Note on Phule’s Akhandadi Kavvya         

Jotirao composed several poems which are titled Akhandadi Kavvya. He composed these poems in 1827 i.e. in the early phase of his poetic career. Later on these poems were published in the book titled Mahatma Phule’s Biography by Pandharinath Seetaram Patil. In these short and simple lyrics, he touches upon various subjects like man’s life, truth, God, society, religion, human existence, enterprises, farmer’s condition, etc. In these poems, he advises the Shudras and the Ati-Shudras, how to be a good man and how to think logically and how to attain one’s own welfare in this world. Dhananjay Keer rightly states, “Jotirao’s poems are verbal expression of his wisdom and humanism.” Akhandadi Kavvya is divided in different sections and sub-sections. The first section consists of eleven sub-sections with their subtitles. These are: One Religion of Man, Men and Women, Introspection, Ethics, Patience, Contentment, Forbearance, Discernment, An occupation, Cleanliness and Household Duties. The second section consists of poems under the following titles, Ganpati, Aryabhatt Brahmin’s Hypocrisy, A Reading of Truth, A Bhat’s song, Sham religious Teacher, Brahman’s Dupery, A Protest Against Collecting Fund from Shudras, Ballad of Dassyu. The third section consists of poems under the following titles, King Bali, Mohammad, A Letter to his Highness King Shivajirao Gaikwad, A Letter to Chamberlain, Laxman Jagganath and A Reply to Advocate Gangaram Bhau Mhaske. The fourth section consists of poems under the following titles, ‘Advice to the Shudras and the Ati-Shudras, A Hymn to Adisatya. The fifth section consists of a single poem under the following subtitle, Ek Apurna Kavvya and the sixth section consists of poems under the following subtitles, To Vithoji Bhujbal, Kulambin and Swami Bandhu’s Critique.

Jotirao dealt with certain common issues or problems in his Akhandadi Kavvya. He criticizes the hypocrisy of priests who belong to the Brahminical community. He firmly believed that crafty Bhats and Brahmins class was misguiding the commoners and was veering them away from the truth which he thought was an ideal religion for man. He lived in the aftermath of the Peshwa Raj and himself watched the illogical and chaotic circumstance they prevailed in the spheres of society, religion and politics. In this turmoil, the Shudras were the worst sufferers. V. B. Auti writes “Jotirao’s main objection was that of the Brahminical rule, religion and corrupt bureaucracy as they were the cause of Shudras’ trouble.” He questions why Bible is open to all? Koran is open to all? But why the Vedas are not accessible to us? Phule wrote that believers in Vedas are fed up with the limitations and weaknesses of the scriptures. In one of his poems, Jotirao eulogizes the glory of Prophet Mohammed. He appreciates his bravery. Mohammed fought for equality and truth. Jotirao brings to light the contrast in his another poem titled Ganapati. He writes that God Ganpati with the head of an animal and the body of a man keeps the untouchables at arm’s length and bestows sweetmeats on Brahmins. Through these poems, Phule conveys the message that education to the illiterate and food to the crippled is the real worship of God. Phule’s poems incorporate for the first time the facts regarding lives of peasants, manual labourers, women and the subalterns. Through these poems, he criticizes certain old ideals and beliefs. He also questions the contemporary cultural, religious system in Hindu society. Phule thinks that religion, race, caste, class, etc. are all artificial barriers. Man living upon this earth should have his own rights as a man. And no system, law, organization can deprive him of his rights. He believed in what Bacon said: “Knowledge is power”. Only knowledge can dispel the darkness from the life of the Shudras who were living in ignoble conditions in his time. Phule firmly believes that authority can deny the rights of man. He wants to use education as a means to uproot caste discrimination, untouchability and occupational bondage. With utmost sincerity, Phule awakes the Shudras and the Ati-Shudras who are suffering due to the bonds of orthodox religion. He gives a piece of advice to his followers. His motif in writing Akhandadi Kavvya is to guide his followers and to show them the right path. He speaks about the past, the present and the future of the marginalized people in the Hindu community.

His ultimate goal was to make man an ideal one who believes in the essence of truth. That ideal man in Phule’s view will consider all other men and women as his brethren. He should be an ideal son, ideal father, ideal husband and an ideal and responsible citizen of society. Whatever business he does, it should be pious and righteous one. Phule emphasized the need of exterminating the caste-discrimination which was like a contagious disease among the Hindus. He had a genuine concern for the Shudras and the Ati-Shudras, so he wanted to uplift them and thereby establish equality of man in this world. He stated that Christians, Muslims, Mangs and Brahmins should be treated like brothers. Phule wants such a social fabric which should be sans discrimination of any kind. Truth is the only God for him and he expected that truth should be the religion of every man. According to him, a truthful man is he who becomes happy over the prosperity of others. He lives in virtue and imparts knowledge to others. Through these poems Phule seems to warn his followers. He advises them not to trouble others. It is a sin. Be humble, be graceful and be contented. Bad conduct leads you to disease and unhappiness.

Jotirao’s Akhandadi Kavvya Rachana deals with multiple themes. Above all, these poems reveal his wisdom and fervour for the depressed class. Phule’s sense of history, humanitarian view, analytical mind in examining Puranic stories and false worshipping is also reflected in these poems. Phule severely criticized crafty Brahmins in his poems. On this basis one may think Phule to be anti-Brahmin. The fact is not so he was not anti Brahmin. He criticized those Brahmins who plundered the illiterate people under the guise of religion. His adopted son Yeshwant was a son of Brahmin widow. Many of his best friends were Brahmins. To sum up the discussion, what Bhole writes is true; he writes, “Phule never criticized Brahman caste rather he condemned the inequality, the institution called priesthood and the creation of the divine in all the religious books.”

Translator’s Note on Akhandadi Kavvya

            I have tried to translate Mahatma Phule’s Akhandadi Kavvya into English. Translating from Marathi into English is not the same thing as translating from one European language into another, because the two are genetically different languages. Success of translation of these poems lies in the linguistic competence of the translator cum researcher himself. Perfect or ideal translation is the ultimate goal of a translator but it seems impossible to reach it. In this context, Higham writes, “All translation is a kind of illusion, more or less perfect according to circumstances and varying also with the skill of the translator.” Every act of translating Marathi text naturally presents greater problems and also of a very different nature. A close reading of Akhandadi Kavvya would reveal that it is always more difficult to translate the 19th century poet than a contemporary poet. A verse translator is expected to give satisfactory answers to the questions like: Can one society imagine another? Can one culture imagine another? Can one form of a poem elevate another something called a metapoem? How will a translator suitably place Phule into the English language culture? Will the TLT (target language text) be helpful in projecting the stature of Phule? Can a researcher cum translator bring the 19th century Marathi poet into the 21st century Europe?

Phule’s Akhandadi Kavvya is similar to the collection of Abhang poems in terms of metrical pattern. Abhang, one of the popular forms of Marathi poetry, was practised by Marathi Saint poets. Though the structure of Abhang and Akhand is similar, yet the two differ in content. Though Phule lived more than 150 years ago, the language used in Akhandadi Kavvya is close to the Marathi spoken today, particularly among the rural masses in the countryside. Like his contemporaries, he helped to shape the language. Phule wrote these poems with a special purpose, a kind of high seriousness in his mind. He wanted to awaken the lethargic masses from their century-old deep slumber. Even today people use Phule in their speech and writing. They use proverbs, turns of phrases, aphorisms or maxims to spice their speech Joti Mahne or Joti Says is Jotirao’s favourite signature line in these poems. Jotirao knew that Abhang was the most popular medieval form of Marathi poetry. In the same vein, he started writing ‘Akhand’, a novel form of poetry in Marathi literature. Phule was the first and perhaps the only practitioner of this form of poetry. This is his genuine contribution to the Marathi social poetry.

Translating poetry is a troublesome endeavour to the translator. Translation of Akhandadi Kavvya is no exception. It demands a rare sensitivity to colloquial words and idioms, myths and metaphors, motifs and symbols. Through these poems, Phule dwells on the issues of the contemporary society. Akhandadi Kavvya is a vehicle, a means of communication. The authorial voice of this revolutionary poet is heard through almost every section of these poems. Andre Lefevere writes, “Translation of literature is therefore essentially retranslation: it becomes necessary when the expression of the interpretation of the theme which were originally designed to establish communication between author and reader, no longer fulfils that task but owing to change in language, time, place and tradition achieves exactly the opposite effect. Then, translation becomes vital in that it restores the communication between author and reader without which literature does not exist.”

Unless the translator presumes how the source text functions, he cannot begin to look for a possible translation. Poems function in delicate, intricate and dynamic ways. So, while translating them, the translator needs to know the source language well. Furthermore, he needs to know socio-cultural dynamics of the 19th century Maharashtra. There is no model which the translator can rely on in his rendering from the SL (Source Language) to the TL (Target Language). Each line in the poem is complete in itself. The lines in the Akhandadi Kavvya are, however, wedded together under certain rhyme scheme and follow the specific meter which resembles that of the traditional Abhang poems.

I find difficulties in tackling the problems concerning cultural equivalents. Translating these poems creates greater difficulties, for the translator encounters the problem of allusions, esoteric symbolism, and indigenous myth. While working on such a translation project, translator faces the problem of protecting the poet’s linguistic culture into the target language. There is a great difficulty in translating images and symbols and the metrical effects in the TL. The rhythmic patterns of Marathi (syllable-stressed) and English (time-stressed) are quite different. Similarly, the translation of these poems becomes complicated while dealing with the rhyme scheme in the SL.

I have to replace the Akhand form by rendering it into free verse or vers libre in the TL rendering i.e. English. The stanza arrangement is, of course, easy to retain without disturbing the spontaneous flow of the SL verse form. In addition to this, there is a problem of the use of language in literature. The language used in poetry is metaphorical and is endowed with plurisignation or multiplicity of meanings. This creates problem for the translator to decide as to what language should be used, literal or metaphorical, whether he should go by the letter or the spirit of the word/phrase. In the translation of Akhandadi Kavvya re-encoding takes place in the TL after decoding the SL text. Both linguistic and cultural factors control the acts of de-coding and re-encoding. The translator decodes the message and meaning of the SL text and re-encodes the message and meaning in the TL text. The verse translator has to maintain the semantic compatibility along with grammaticality in matching the linguistic structure of the SL text with that of the TL text. Verse translator should always bear in mind Smith’s opinion. He writes, “To translate is to change into another language retaining as much of the sense of the source language as one can.” The other hurdles in verse translation are polysemy, oligosemy and lexical gaps. The translator should be able to differentiate between denotative, connotative and idiomatic meanings of words. Because of their undertones of connotative meaning translation of some words becomes more problematic. The problem of language in poetry is not easy to overcome. Ornamental words and expressions based on lyricism producing musical and aesthetic effects are difficult to translate. A sepal has a unique position regarding the structure of a flower. In the same way, every word in a poem has its own position. In a poem sounds, rhythm, rhyme, words, images, symbols etc. are not only present together but they also act on one another. That is why reading poetry is itself an act of creative interpretation. Robert Penn Warren writes, “Poetry does not inhere in any particular element but depends upon the set of relationships, the structure which we call the poem.” The translator has to examine how different parts are united to form the organic unity of the poem. A poem abounds in figures of speech such as simile, metaphor, irony, paradox, etc. and unprecedented phonological, syntactic and semantic patterns such as rhyming, alliteration, versification, morphological parallelism, syntactic parallelism and above all syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations between words. The verse translator must take into account linguistic structure of a poem. The linguistic structure covers such aspects as sounds, rhyme and rhythm, patterns of words, phrases and sentences. Some translators try to overcome this difficulty by advocating prose rendering of a poem. Mahatma Phule wrote Akhandadi Kavvya in a fixed meter; such poems pose problems for the translator.

Poetry is normally precise, tense and tight and even verbally economical. Brevity is its soul. Stylistic devices, the sound effects, emotive and symbolic passages, ironical and cultural incompatibility are the major areas where problems in verse translation arise. Translating a poem into prose can be the best option for the job is done faithfully in prose – a kind of paraphrase rather than a metapoem.

Eugene Nida holds the view that a translation of verse should be in prose. But Prof. Postgate in his Translations and Translators states, not without any justification, “…the cardinal principle that prose should be translated by prose and the opinion that a prose translation of poetry may be incomplete.” The aesthetic beauty, precision, compactness, vigor and harmony of verse cannot adequately be accommodated in prose. The high seriousness associated with a poem is totally lost, if the rendition is made in prose.

Languages are associated historically with particular cultures. Languages provide the key to the associated cultures. The languages themselves cannot be fully understood outside the context of the cultures. When it comes to translating Indian literature into English, there are some difficulties in using English for cross-cultural communication. The medium itself creates some problems for the translator while negotiating between the two different cultures involved in translation. Culturally speaking, English is an alien language which is used, at large, as a medium of expression. The major problem that confronts is how to express the native mind or sensibility in it. The native thoughts and sensibilities are either translated literally or transliterated into the alien tongue adding footnotes or giving glossary as and when required.

Culture constitutes the way of life with all its manifestations, customs, arts, social institutions, etc. that are peculiar to the community that uses the given language as its means of expression and/or communication. Society, politics, religion, history, economy and geography shape the culture of every community. Literature is a social as well as cultural product of a given society which is produced by its members. It is a product of culture and also mirrors culture. People living in different geographical regions with different climatic conditions experience different phenomena have different perceptions of the world and categorize things differently on the basis of their experiences.

While translating Akhandadi Kavvya from Marathi to English I encountered mainly two types of problems.

  1. To find equivalence of words relating to the social and cultural milieu or ecological surroundings, references to historical facts etc, and
  2. To solve the problems of untranslatability (conceptual as well as collocational) that arises due to the lack of proper equivalents in the TL.

The first category includes words relating to material and social culture like names of food items, clothes, houses, household articles, farm equipments means of transport leisure, etc. These are peculiar to the life of people in 19th century Maharashtra. The second category includes Marathi personal names, set phrases, idioms, proverbs, aphorisms, colloquial words from folk culture etc. such elements encountered in a literary text bearing special connotations of Marathi culture are a real problem for the verse translator trying to render Marathi poetry into English.

In the case of social and cultural words, phrases, etc., they need cultural descriptions of the referents (SL text). The translator has to try his level best to retain the cultural flavour of the original without deviating from, if not distorting, the style and tone of the author’s language. The translation becomes a complex negotiation not only between the two languages and literary conventions, but between the two cultures also. In this situation, the unit of translation can no longer be a word or a stanza of a poem, but indeed the ideational content expressed in the entire argument in the language and culture in which it is composed.

In Marathi literature, Akhandadi Kavvya with its strict metrical form and rhyme on the one hand, and it’s extremely rich and semantically complex lexicon, on the other hand, turns it into an untranslatable text in the Abhang-like genre. A genuine, authentic and truthful translation of lyrical poems like Akhand needs successful wedding of head and heart of the original poet and the translator. The translator is required to conceive the whole gamut of the original writer’s empirical knowledge and experiential sensibility. The translator has not only to confront and understand the idioms and culture that Phule represents. The SL author faithfully depicted the contemporary life of the people. The translator tries to bridge the two different cultures, the two different social systems and the two different times i.e. a gap of around one hundred and eighty five years. To a creative writer, a word is essentially a cultural memory, in which the entire society participates. In this context, verse translation is like transplanting a poem from one language into another, here from one national culture into another and likewise from the global culture into local one. Transplantation of experience from one linguistic soil into another is almost like an exercise in Parkaya Pravesh that is transmigration of soul from one body to another. This is possible because between any two societies, there will be a greater or lesser degree of “Cultural overlap” Generally speaking, translatability is a function indicating the degree of cultural overlap.

One more problem that crops up in the case of Akhandadi Kavvya is that it was written in a regional dialect. The translator’s dilemma is that he can neither ignore the dialect used in the SL text nor can he translate it into an equivalent dialect in the TL. The SL dialect always gets translated into the TL standard dialect. What we find, therefore, is always an asymmetric translation of a work in a dialect into the standard TL language. Prof. G. K. Gokak and R. K. Bansal are of the opinion that it is the only variety used in all English translations of regional literatures. If we opt for a non-standard variety of English, the social and cultural context will get changed totally as is done by P. L. Deshpande in Tee Phulranee a translation of Shaw’s play Pygmalion from English into Marathi.

Thus, translation of an oriental language literary text into an occidental language inevitably involves social and cultural dislocation. Any translation from a regional language into English changes the entire socio-cultural milieu of the original. The SL author and the TL readers do not belong to the same socio-cultural milieu. The thoughts of the SL writer cannot be wholly expressed in the other language. The TL English, for that matter, appears very inadequate because of the huge gap between the two cultures. In this context, Sabiruddin writes, “Only a translation which succeeds in encompassing all the major cultural components can truly fulfill the task of carrying cultural values from one literature to another.”








One religion for All


There is the one master Creator

whom we should revere.

Consume everything moderately.

Be happy. Don’t quarrel.

Let there be no chasm in politics and religion.

Conduct truthfully for God’s sake.

I pray for everyone’s happiness.

I tell this to Aryans.

Says Joti.



The Creator has created the Earth.

She has been nicely bearing our weight.

She nourishes pastures and orchards.

Trees give us sweet fruits and shadows.

She rotates day and night

to ease our living.

Why should men have too many religions

when our Creator is One.

Says Joti.



The Creator creates rains and rivers

to give happiness to everyone.

Rivers flow swiftly.

Naughty Aryan founded shrines on the banks.

Foolish men shave their heads, beards and braids there.

Bhats rob pilgrims of their money.

Shrines are an Aryan invention

to deceive people by all means.

Says Joti.



Can we bring rains by chanting God’s name and doing rituals?

If so, why do Aryans die in drought-prone region?

In the flood they dip and dabble

O, they perish and get diposited at the bottom.

Then, the swollen corpses float on water.

Is it not a fun to the earthlings?

They become Bhudevas among illiterate Shudras.

O, why do they beg, then?

Says Joti.



Chanting God’s name and doing rituals won’t help women become mothers.

If that is true, why do they remarry to beget children?

In Brahmin community many women are infertile.

Why don’t they find way out through rituals?

Widows deliver children without doing rituals.

Instantly they kill infants in the dark corners.

As you sow, so shall you reap.

They deserve divine punishment.

Says Joti.



Aryans say Parshuram is their God

who had slain Kshatriya children.

Hypocritical Peshwas went to Panipat

but were defeated by Muslims.

Raobaji, the valiant warrior was scared of Englishmen.

He disappeared at Bithur.

Nana, an artful Aryan posed to be holy

but dined with Englishmen.

Says Joti.



The sun gives us light

and sets every creature to work.

He gives life and provides food

to every creature in this animal kingdom.

He gives us pleasures like our father

without being partial.

We all should have only one religion.

And we should profess that truthfully.

Says Joti.



The moon roams in the sky.

She gives us pleasure day and night.

She causes tide and ebb in the sea

and churns salty water in it.

Clouds shower fresh water.

We drink it to quench our thirst.

Many religions for a man?

Are you in your senses?

Says Joti.



Creator created air exclusively.

Every creature breathes.

It gives life and nutrients

to trees and vines.

Wind purifies air.

It enlivens creatures day and night.

O, my brothers, always bow in reverence to God.

I wish everyone’s happiness.

Says Joti.



Iranian hooligans were audacious and rebellious who

led furious expeditions in Balisthan.

They became powerful

and occupied vast area.

The Bhat supremo pompously said,

‘Word Aryans is derived from the word Irani’.

Their preaching is unrealistic.

They conceal the Vedas to frighten us.

Says Joti.



O Kshatriya brothers, be hardworking men.

Raise your family in all gaiety.

Always admit your children in schools.

Donate food to pupils.

Practise truth, the soverign principle.

Treat Aryan Bhata warmly.

With such a conduct you’ll be happy

and make others happy, too.

Says Joti.



Children from poor families should receive education

and seek alms to make ends meet.

Educated elders should give free education

and should seek alms in villages.

Open school for men and women

and teach everyone impartially.

If you spend money for your own-interest

you will go deteriorating.

Says Joti.



A sinner is not worthy to receive alms.

No one can control a lier and a drunkard man.

Aryan is a traitor, a villain who gets power from religion.

A preacher is mighty among meek.

If you help him, he will make a mess.

He’ll put mankind to shame.

Says Joti.



Birds and animals have little intelligence;

include interpreters of the Vedas among them.

Embrace Christian, Muslim,

Mang and Brahmin brothers affectionately.

All humans are siblings.

You are like a drop in the ocean.
Use your brains and share pleasures with others.

Give food to hungry wrecks.

Says Joti.



Write and speak in your mother-tongue.

Be a good-tempered man.

After forty, take initiative

to inspect schools whenever needed.

Convey the crux of primordial truth

to foolish Mangs and adamant Brahmins.

Only truth is the Creator’s religion.

Vain is your pedantic interpretation.

Says Joti.



Write and speak in English.

Give up your bad habits in toto.

After forty, take initiative

to inspect schools from village to village.

Teach truth to ardent Christians

and make them cautious like your brothers.

Sans truth, there can’t be a religion.

Convey the crux of the matter to everyone.

Says Joti.



Write and speak in Muslim’s language.

Give up bad habits in toto.

After forty, they should take initiative

to inspect town schools.

Make the Sunnies and the Shiyates followers of truth.

Allah’s bravery prevails everywhere.

Satyadharma is the best religion.

Tell the truth to everyone.

Says Joti.



Those who are well-versed in the three languages

are virtuous, prosperous and respectable.

After forty, they should take initiative

to become proud heirs of society.

Sing hymns of Christ and Muhammad at shrines.

Make them conduct truthfully.

Truth is the only religion in this world.

Convey the crux of the matter to everyone.

Says Joti.



He who is well-versed in all the languages

is virtuous, prosperous and Satyawadi.

He needs neither encouragement nor support.

Don’t place age restrictions for him.

He treats everyone like his sibling,

also takes no pride in fictitious stories.

Truth is the only religion he professes.

His actions are truthful.

Says Joti.



Men and Women


A virtuous woman treats everyone

like her sibling.

Aryans inflict pain to Mangs and Mahars.

She warbles hymns of Jesus and Mohammad truthfully.

And lead men on the way to God.

She never discriminates on the basis of

country, religion, or caste. She is truly becoming a mother.

Call her a virtuous woman and sing her hymns.

Says Joti.



Brahmaraksha lacks knowledge of the self.

He harasses everyone in his holy state.

Does he know weighing his personal

joys and sorrows with others?

O he has become Ahambrahma.

A rotten Apple is swollen in proud.

An eccentric sinner defiles humankind.

Says Joti.



A plain, impeccable, thoughtful man

follows truth in his worldly business of life.

Like the sun he sows the light.

Like the moon he gives us quietude.

He behaves not like a Bhudev, a Jati or a Marwari.

He never bites the hand that feeds him.

Call him a virtuous soul

and sing his hymns.

Says Joti.



A debaucher and a villain

cuts all his wordly ties. Oh, he is liberated!

How can a liberated man write books?

Heretics write books to secure Aryans’ interest?

They glorify Aryans and cheat Shudras excessively,

treating them like slaves.

They are misanthropes and artful men.

Go through their books.

Says Joti.



Shudras’ truthful conduct makes everyone happy.

So, Aryans pine and waste away.

Brahmins are idlers.

In utter perplexion, they seek help from the Shudra.

They can’t help cheating others.

Shudras rely on these traitors.

Make indolent Bhats hard working men.

Let the trouble be nipped in the bud.

Says Joti.



Conduct truthfully; that’s our religion.

Brahmans don’t know the crux of the matter.

Labourers are prosperous.

No one will call them Kunbi.

Share pleasure with all to make them happy.

Your troubles will run helter-skelter.

A hardworking man is Shudra’s true brother.

Think of his advantage.

Says Joti.



Those whom Truth blesses will never harass others.

No, not a bit.

A discerning man never wishes to become a Brahmin

through body, speech and mind.

Never he suppresses Shudras and others.

He never takes undue proud in his family.

Never will he interpret verses hypocritically.

Call him a discerning man.

Make him your companion.

Says Joti.



To become a sage

he grows a mass of matted locks tufted on his head

and reads Aryan Shastras.

A man disguises as a tiger or a sage.

He impersonates a tiger in Tabut procession

and joyously skips from house to house.

In a real test, he is unable to run with a dog.

Without professing truth, men become sages.

So, they become all rotten apples.

Says Joti.



A son of well-bred parents

may not be well-bred like them.

He may become a mine of vices.

A wealthy man drinks wine

and keeps concubine.

O shame on him.

Although a Brahmin, he gets intoxicated

and cheats Shudras excessively.

He is a sinner.

Make no friends with him.

Says Joti.



Aryans forbade women to remarry.

O boundless was their injustice!

Aryajis prepare fake papers.

They accept much bribe, unjustly.

They tell Shudras Puranical stories

and incited them to oppose the government for their own interest.

Unjust Brahmins are ubiquitous.

They inflict troubles upon others.

Says Joti.



They reproach Islam enviously

and criticise its principles in their books.

Snobbish men think Shudras to be second-rate.

They use them like animals.

They eat Shudras’ food and then reproach them.

They keep Shudras off.

Brahmins criticise Shudras yet participate in festivities in their houses.

These festivals are the cause of Shudras’ ruin.

Says Joti.



Basically Aryans are cruel men.

They think of Shudras as children of slaves.

Quoting disputed Smriti

Brahmins persecute Mangs and Mahars.

Aryan Vedas are highly controversial.

On examining rationally,

they will run in woods and wilds.

O Bhats are root cause of Shudras tormentation

but are made invincible.

Says Joti.



A Satyagrahi to the bone is never unjust,

treats everyone like his sibling.

He never vainly reproaches Mahars and Mangs.

He sets Aryans’ writing on the fire.

In prosperity, he harasses none.

He buries malice deep under the ground.

Call him a Satyagrahi and a true brother of Joti

and entire mankind, too.



A follower of truth,

abhors anger and professes Satyadharma.

He is the most powerful,

kind and tender-hearted man.

He exercises restraints on his sensory organs.

A virtuous and temperate man bears

unblemished inner disposition.

On knowing truth, he condemns Kali.

He is the only protector of truth.

Says Joti.



People repel calling Krishna the God

as water repels lotus leaves.

A mustard seed never rests on the point of a needle;

in the same way a Brahman never becomes a good-doer.

Show me a virtuous Brahman in this world

and I’ll kiss him.

A Brahman is a sinner as others,

from whence will you bring a better one?

Says Joti.


A mother nourishes baby in her womb

and then brings it out in this world.

Neglecting a care of mother, Aryan shows compassion to all.

Who will call him a good man?

Aryan ascetics are sanctimonious.

Confirmed bachelors discontinue their line.

Aryan impostors inflict pain on their mothers.

They will degrade themselves surely.

Says Joti.



Arya Brahmin lacks knowledge of the self.

So, he harasses others excessively.

A ruthless man becomes Ahambrahma.

A beggar is causing nuisance to others.

He considers Ati-Shudras to be a second-rate man.

He is swollen with proud like a jackal.

In the name of Shradha he slays dumb cows.

He slays them with his own hands!

Says Joti.



Brahmins endear both the mighty and the meek

but show concern to neither of them.

They treat their critics respectfully

and treat them ethically.

They show leniency to short-tempered men.

They pose to be holy among illiterate men.

True, that such Brahmins malign humanity.

Says Joti.


Proud men harass illiterate Shudras

but are very afraid of Englishmen.

Inebriated, they exhibit their learning to Antyaja.

They eat up Muslim’s food like vultures.

They sacrifice cows and horses during Yajnas.

They reproach Englishmen enviously.

O Brahmins, don’t be sinners.

Don’t persecute others.

Says Joti



There were liers among Brahmins;

so, they fabricated myth of Ramakant.

Aryans prefer teaching,

how could Peshwa fight against the British?

Is there any Aryan whom everyone appreciated?

Will you show me such a man, if any?

They conceive Lord Krishna

whom a fowler killed.

Says Joti.



Without finding our Creator,

Aryans wrote fictitious books.

Bhudevas take over His chair,

actors dupe Shudras.

They always cheat sons of deceased men

and extract a pair of shoes from them.

Suggest a proper epithet to Brahmins.

Will you please suggest to me?

Says Joti.



Aryans yearn for earthly delights.

That’s why they learn English and become Englishmen’s servants.

Brahmins are very partial.

They favour Bhats while giving justice.

They yearn to get their seats reserved in the other world.

O they eat mutton, too!

They chant and worship idols in Shudras houses

and yet blame them.

Says Joti.



He who wishes to conduct truthfully

is worthy among mankind. He is a happy man.

A learned man wishes to see everyone happy.

He has a thirst for virtues.

A blessed man acknowledges his personal willows and woes

and also those of others. He treats them accordingly.

Call him a virtuous man.

Treat him like your own brother.

Says Joti.



Brahmins like both truth and untruth.

They’ll neither appreciate nor reproach both.

They dislike to love and piety.

They’ll not forgive if Shudras practise those.

They’ll never condemn artful disciples of Brahma

They are evil-doers and man-haters.

They have lost their corporeal consciousness.

They are the most wicked people in our community.

Says Joti.



Aryans eat beef while performing Shraddha.

They enjoy delicious food in the name of departed souls.

Poor Mangs slay weak and sick cows,

so, the Brahmins reproach them severely.

Jatis, believers in non-violence, drink boiled water,

killing germs in it.

Aryans and Jatis are dishonest men.

So, they will degrade themselves.

Says Joti.



Whosoever knows Brahma becomes a Brahmin.

Then, no one will possibly remain a Shudra.

Brahmins lay ban on intercaste marriages.

They are intoxicated like snakes.

They despise Christians and Muslims.

Also persecute them like animals.

Knowledge of Brahma is a true mark of Brahminhood.

But they are now becoming a mine of vices.

Says Joti.



He nourishes truth in his heart;

so, he worries not about the past, the present and the future.

He is truthful in this unbroken passage of time.

He shares happiness in whatever work he undertakes.

His children will be happy even after his death.

Everyone will be happy.

Call him a learned and illustrious man,

a gem of humankind.

Says Joti.



Brahmin’s religion is like those of Jatis and Marwaris

who distribute sweets only after someone’s demise.

A Brahmin wears sacred clothes. He will never touch a Shudra.

He will never drink and dine at public places.

He will never allow his daughter to marry a Shudra.

He’ll never give polluted food to Antyajas.

Aryan Brahmin isn’t becoming among us.

Now, he’s gone astray.

Says Joti.



Aryans carved plenty of fantastic Gods.

They wrote fictitious stories for their benefit.

They wrote the myths of dancing Kinners, Gandharvas

and duped illiterate men.

Practising sacredness is their ostentatious display

to beguile Shudras and others.

Brahmins have always shamelessly

cheated Shudras in a great measure.

Says Joti.



O Man, God hasn’t created everything for you alone.

Don’t take proud in yourself among other animals.

He gave you body and brain.

He made you master of all other creatures.

Sweat and perspire for others’ benefit.

Let your body be instrumental for others’ wellbeing.

Such a conduct will make your life fruitful

and will please our Creator, too.

Says Joti.



A virtuous man is courageous one.

He is backed by the truth.

He is Satyavadi, brave and honourable, too.

His subdued passions embellish mankind.

He is virtuous and skilled.

He weighs others’ willows and woes with his own

and treats them impartially.

Call him a virtuous soul.

Jotiba will kiss his forehead.




Introspecting man gratifies

to see other’s gain.

He shares virtues among men.

A learned man frightens others,

and conducts worship in his house.

Knowing himself, he knows others

and treats everyone like his brothers.

He introspects so, he is blessed and respected.

Says Joti.



Without thinking of neighbours enviously,

everyone seeks luxuries and comforts.

So, he works anxiously for his advantage,

to win name and fame.

A truly selfish man lives with us

but disappoints the needy.

He doesn’t introspect

and lives, therefore, in the shadow of melancholy.

Says Joti.



The Creator created humankind

and gave each one his share of intelligence.

Using their brains men start business.

And become successful.

Aryans go in for soldiership.

Their advanced weaponry help them conquer Shudras.

For generations they enslaved Shudras.

Thus, they took revenge on Shudras.

With their arrows they killed brave Bhilla, Kolis

and drove them out in the woods and wilds.

They oppressed Mangs and Mahars.

So heinous horrendous was Aryans’ punishment!

Without introspecting, they wrote Vedas and Smritis.

Aryans are blamed because they wrote all this.

Says Joti.



Aryans ousted every ruler.

They were swollen with pride. Look into Vedas.

Even today they disappoint  Shudras

and treat them like slaves.

They were happy forbidding  Shudras’ learning.

They couldn’t bear with Antyaja’s shadow.

Aryans parted with introspection

and, therefore, caused nuisance to the conquered.

Says Joti.



Aryans harassed the conquered Shudras enviously.

They robbed illiterate men of their money.

They quoted Vedas, the books they concealed.

They declared their supremacy.

Apprise a Shudra of his rights as a man.

Stop practising Vedic trickeries, Brahmanical labyrinthine!

Woe betide! Aryans don’t introspect.

They harass Antyajas.

Says Joti.



Applying their reasoning power, Aryans wrote books.

They never bothered about God for their advantage.

They conducted Puranical recitals at Shudras houses

and cheated them under the guise of religion of religion.

The idlers beguiled everyone.

They announced themselves to be Bhudevas.

Aryans parted with introspection

and hence neglected their own religious ordinances.

Says Joti.



Aryans beguiled Shudras and others

and nibbled their food like rats.

They crossed their limits.

They couldn’t bear Shudras’ shadow while having their meals.

They behaved meanly, shamelessly.

They were obstinate men.

Villains, culprits always hate others

and are never backed by virtues.

They stopped introspecting.

So they deserve life imprisonment.

Says Joti.



See, if there is any difference between Mangs and Aryans.

You should know one spirit lives in them.

Both eat and drink alike.

Both enjoy physical pleasures alike.

Both Mangs and Aryans bring glory to mankind.

They are birds of the same flock.

Acquire knowledge of the self. That is the best way.

None is polluted here.

Says Joti.



When everyone hankers after pleasures,

how can there be factions in the sphere of politics, religions and castes?

We are drawn to pleasures

that pester us indiscriminately.

Temptation and envy loom large over mankind,

so, men are turning violent in this world.

Selfishness corrupts your knowledge of the self.

So, many men have turned wicked.

Says Joti.



If everyone knows his rights as a man,

then who’ll feed Arya Bhats?

Now Shudras are saying, “Why others call them inferior?”

Why are Aryans an elite class in Balisthan?

Like poisonous snakes, the Vedas bite illiterate men.

And then slid back in their holes.

Contentions are baneful for us.

Now, throw away these heretical festivities.

Dodge anyhow impending calamities.

Go and embrace Shudras and others.

This is high time. Introspect.

Always remember our Creator.

Says Joti.



O you corrupt Aryans, why don’t you become virtuous men?

Why don’t you set your example to Muslims?

Stop behaving like Bhudevas.

People condemn those artful actors.

Be supplicant and apologize to them

as you have no other place to go.

Practise introspection.

Control your envy.

Says Joti.



Retrospecting men overcome their drawbacks

and conduct truthfully with all and sundry.

You receive what you give.

Be impartial.

And then enjoy pleasures of life in this world.

Be cautious. Introspect.

This is what Joti tells to artful men.



O, you hanker after delights.

Always take Truth’s support.

Sing hymns of truth boldly.

Make everyone happy.

Then you’ll get secured.

You’ll be safe and make others’ safe, too.

Introspect. That’s true knowledge

and a sign of intellect.

Says Joti.


Ethical Values


The Creator created humankind.

Some are fair. It is a skin colour.

He gave them brain to ease their lives

and assigned to them separate jobs.

A follower of ethics never harasses others.

He wins his bread by the sweat of his brow.

and makes everyone happy, joyously.

These are true ethical values in our religion.

The rest is all sin.

Says Joti.



Everyone keeps

all his belongings away from others.

I wish I had every luxury for me alone,

but why should we deprive others?

Know yourself before knowing others.

Conduct truthfully with them.

Truth is sign of ethics in our religion

that keeps it sustaining.

Says Joti.


Sans truth, religion isn’t conceivable.

It may be anti-people. It will breed controversies.

Deviate from truth’s path and you’ll face controversies.

You’ll be a crooked man throughout your life.

Uphold truth as your religion till your breath last.

It ensures peace to men living everywhere.

Truth is pivotal value of our ethics and religion.

The rest is all sin.

Says Joti.



Conduct truthfully for your own advantage.

Set your siblings on the right way.

O, doctor heal thyself.

Avert everything that is sinful.

Therein lies your bliss.

Sinners snatch away others’ pleasures;

so, they incur divine displeasure.

Truth is an ethical value in man’s religion.

The rest is all sin.

Says Joti.



Uphold truth for your own advantage.

The Creator is like a bed-rock.

Don’t rear disparities based on politics and religions.

Avert all this for truth’s sake.

You’ll be a gem among us.

You’ll win laureals.

Behave humanely. That is our religion.

The rest is all sin.

Says Joti.



Telling lies and harassing illiterate men,

snatching off your brothers’ bread,

deceiving your faithful friend,

brewing liquor to raise your family,

and making your children drunkards –

are these all the signs of a good man?

Truth is an ethical value in man’s religion.

The rest is all sin.

Says Joti.



An honest man deals fairly

with others.

Be grateful and be a patron of men.

The Creator will give power to your elbow.

Be humble and be courteous.

Do your work day and night.

Truth stands for ethics in our religion.

The rest is all sin.

Says Joti.




A plain and truth-loving man

gets peace of mind.

His heart is steeped in patience.

He behaves truthfully all the while.

A patient man endures sorrows and pains

and solves his problems, helps the distressed.

Patient men give pleasure to everyone

and become successful.

Says Joti.



Aryans impatiently enslaved Shudras.

Amidst their riches, they are swollen with proud.

Shudras are poor, coward, meek and illiterate men.

They touch Aryans feet. O shame on them!

In ignorance, they faught against Muslims

and met their maker for Aryans’ sake.

Aryans oppressed brave Mangs and Mahars

and made them live like animals.

Says Joti.



A patient and determined man

may have a tough time but succeeds in the end.

The valiant stand firmly

and solve their problems successfully.

Patience helps ingraining greater qualities.

It strengthens your arm

in your struggle against destiny.

Behave truthfully and your troubles

will take a flee in woods and wilds.

Says Joti.



Sinners are wary of past deeds.

They look crest-fallen.

They fear exposure of their vile deeds

and possible disgrace by others.

Only a plain follower of truth

gets true satisfication.

A truly patient man reveres God.

True is his patience.

Says Joti.



A blessed man cleanses his heart

and entrusts his burden unto God.

He conducts truthfully.

He abolishes caste and religious factions.

He is a happy and blessed man.

Aryans have no guts to speak out the truth.

They are cunning, cantankerous men.

They never show Vedas and Manu’s writing to people.

Never they have brought the mystique in light.

Says Joti.




The Creator created this animal kingdom,

giving each one his means of livelihood, outrightly.

Creating food and fooder, He blessed them eternally.

Amongst them, only man is made intelligent

to behave truthfully at every juncture.

Give food to underdogs, orphans

and treat them lovingly like your brethren.

Try to know God’s great and mighty plan.

Be obliged to Him sincerely.
If you torture others, people will censure you.

That will be a bone of contention.

Be grateful and contented.

That’s a sign of your life’s fulfilment.

Says Joti.



Dissatisfied men are indifferent to instincts.

Vices overrule them in their day-to-day living.

They get perturbed

when they fall ill.

Vainly, they become angry with government.

Sometimes, they reproach their friends.

Dissatisfied men lose the lustre of their intelligence.

They live with discomfort.

Says Joti.



Aryans brag of their capabilities.

They boldly speak of it to illiterate men.

Idiots can’t differentiate between milk and urine.

They tell that Vedanta assures salvation.

They subsist on robbing the stupid ones.

They proudly announce their liberation.

How can arch-sinners

enjoy bliss and satisfication?

Says Joti.



Like a billy-goat, Aryan never thinks

that he is unfit among virtuous men.

A son of a brewer lacks knowledge of the self.

A butcher dwells on non-violence.

He banishes satisfication,

perpetrates anarchy in society.

He shows no reverence to our Creator

because of his ignorance.

Says Joti.



They fall ill due to their bad deeds.

They cause nuisance to their children.

They become fatalists.

They raise a great hue and cry in the name of destiny.

Everything is predestined.

Brahma’s inscription can’t be undone.

Narayan, their invention is born asexually.

Fictitious tales give us false satisfication.

Says Joti.



They conceived peace in Heaven.

Using their reasoning power, they wrote up books.

Where is the heaven? Has anyone been there?

Come forward and produce him before me.

O Dada, sacred thread wearer, don’t lose your temper

if I ask you a question.

A lier can’t be a satisfied man.

Think, what I say.

Says Joti.



As you sow, so shall you reap.

Let not your children go astray.

Discard your bad habits

to ensure safety of your children.

Let bygone be bygone.

See that you deal in yourself fairly with others.

Gratify yourself first

and then make everyone happy.

Says Joti.



Discontent is the king. Mosquitoes are ministers.

Soldiers, the baddies keep tight security.

Envy, the mace bearer shrieks.

“Let’s kill virtues”.

Illiterate masses drink wine.

Bickerings are rampant. Bliss is rare.

With such a conduct you will not be satisfied.

They are truly stone-hearted men.

Says Joti.



They degrade themselves by their vile acts

and immediately land in troubles.

They repent and then think consciously.

If they adopt right way, they’ll be illustrious men.

They’ll reap benefit at every step in their life.

A contented man seems

enveloped in the bliss forever.

Says Joti.



A dissatisfied man faces

troubles sooner or later.

He seeks support from truth. He seems determined.

He works incessantly for paupers.

The wicked men forced Socrates to drink poison.

Enviously, they tortured him to death.

Is there any contented man here around?

Will you find such a character portrayed in a book?

Says Joti.




Forbearing man has a never-say-die spirit.

He is a king of courage sans anger.

He never irritates when he falls ill.

He never grumbles.

He avoids doing baneful acts.

He never retialates.

He gives a piece of advice to evil-doers.

He teaches them without arguing.

In all patience he enjoys earthly delights

He gets satisfication then.

Says Joti.



Iranian Bhatjis descended here in Balisthan.

Those greedy troops conquered Kshatriyas.

You’ll get its clue in the Vedas.

Aryans served as soldiers.

They made the native people untouchables.

Aryans wouldn’t bear with their shadows, enviously.

They forbade Shudras’ learning.

Rogues became masters.

O, they robbed people tremondously.

Mahars and Mangs were truly tolerant.

Aryans were thus put to shame.

Says Joti.


They’ll rust with their evil deeds

will cause troubles, agonies and pangs.

They condemn God for their pain.

They reproach the Creator intensely.

The Creator gives us birth and death, pleasures and sorrows.

He is the actor and the world is his play.

A sinner shakes with fear to confess his sins.

O, he is disgracing God.

Such an atheist and an impostor

lacks forbearance of any kind.

Says Joti.



The Creator made humans homogenously.

He gave everyone his share of intelligence.

Intelligence isn’t inherited for generations.

Shudras are hale and hearty like others

and are healthy as Aryans.

Why do Shudras forget their rights as man?

Ati-Shudras live like animals.

When were Shudras become Aryans’ slave?

How do Aryans become their masters?

Aryans’ greed is the real bone of contention.

Read their books and you’ll find that.

Basically, man should be free from religious factions.

Men should be united.

I wrote book ‘Sarvajanik Satyadharma’.

I had no money to publish it.

Moro Vitthal Valvekar, a kind man in Mumbapuri,

my native brother who showed sympathy to

Shudras and others, generously helped me

publish and print

two thousand copies in the first edition

on condition that amount would be paid

on the sale of the books.

I am deliberately taunting my frugal Shudra brothers.

Valvekar, a pal of Joti and a

father of a married girl helped me publish this book.



O, Shudras, avoid drinks for a few days

and, with the money saved, buy books.

Think profoundly when you read books.

Don’t rear animosity in your heart.

A fake religion is sans truth

but its followers unduly glorify it for their benefit.

Fanatics deviate from the path of truth.

They fight battles and spill much blood.

Becoming crusaders, they set their example

to their children and harass people for generations.

Sans tolerance, you will not be satisfied.

Tolerance strengthens bonds of unity.

Says Joti.





Be conscientious

to make your children happy.

Such men are altruistic.

They attain their own welfare, too.

Don’t cheat foolish men for your benefit;

What’ll you do if they cheat you?

Be just and conscientious.

Don’t worry about the future.

Says Joti.



A conscientious man never chants and worships

and thinks of those as futile offerings to God.

He never finds weak widows,

and gets them to barbers to shave their heads.

He never worships metal or stone idols of God.

He never calls Shudras as mean chaps.

He pines inconscientiously.

A crass heretic is he.

Says Joti.



A cunning Brahmin says,

“Vedant propagates animal killing,

killing a cow brings a religious merit.”

Remember what Manu called to Shudras and Ati-Shurass.

Brahmins are enjoying pleasures of life here in Balisthan.

Condemn Manu and throw away his writing.

Treat Shudras and others as your brethren.

Inconscientious Aryajis become stone-hearted

They are protecting Kali.

Says Joti.



Aryans oppressed Mangs and Mahars.

Aryans pushed them in the underworld, made them untouchables.

Artful Rishis composed the Vedas.

Enviously they tortured Shudras, highly.

Many Shudras starved to death.

Malicious Aryans didn’t give them even polluted food.

Aryans parted with conscience.

That’s why they tortured Shudras.

Says Joti.



I wish my brothers Aryans should be compassionate

I wish to set Manu’s writing ablaze.

Aryans Vedanta

advocate man’s equality.

Can you count all the men on the earth’s surface?

Be with Christians and Muslims,

Mangs, Mahars along with Shudras.

Be conscientious firmly

and set your example for your successors.

Says Joti.



Aryan brothers are inconscientious

so they imagine every house as abode of religion.

Can there be any uniform religion for man?

Look, and you’ll find many.

Everyone boasts his religion is the best.

So he is swollen with proud.

Which religion should we adopt?

Which religion should we profess everyday?

Says Joti.



Brahmins concealed Vedas and Manu’s writing in their houses

and cheated Muslims inexplicately.

Englishmen unravelled Brahmanical mystique.

And condemned them severely.

Englishmen recruited MangMahars as food servers

and army men.

Englishmen are conscientious.

Damn Aryans!

Says Joti.



O Antyajas, remember Englishmen’s favours

and embrace them warmly.

National Congress secures Aryan interest.

How can Shudras participate in it?

Attend sessions with Englishmen

and expose Brahmanical mystique there.

Be bold and be conscientious.

Give happiness to mankind.

Says Joti.



At the time opportune, cunning men

set quarrels among the foolish men.

They play tricks to secure their own interest

which will result in a row that will be baneful to Shudras.

During the crisis, cunning men hold

Shudras  before the cannon’s mouth and themselves perform rituals.

Live in their company

and people will ridicule you.

Says Joti.



They are distillers so are sans mercy.

Like Joshis’, they cheat people in broad day-light.

They are skin-traders and are in search of harlots.

Harlots dance

and sing to entertain them.

They make their chaste wives weep at home.

Foolishmen drink wine in excess

and set a bad example to their children.

Says Joti.



Innumerable are the religions in this world.

Their followers fight amongst them like steers.

Some tried to catch those steers but lost their lives.

Many say that they went to the heaven.

Some say that they became martyrs.

Others say that they went to Jannat.

Inconscientious men are perplexed

and thus become violent blood suckers.

Says Joti.




Man has many occupations

to spend his hours in the sun and shower.

Gentle men start business for personal gain

and set their example to their children.

Among them, some are idlers, cruel, debauchers

who make people their enemies all the while.

As you so shall you reap.

Actions cause your happiness and sorrows.

Says Joti.



Deal in fairly and your diseases will take a flee.

You may enjoy better health.

They work pleasantly

and enjoy earthly comforts throughout their life.

Good conduct and bliss is at their beck and call.

They wish to live peacefully.

God will give success to their work.

People will be happy.

Says Joti.



A philantrop starts

a business exclusively for poor brothers.

He’ll give knowledge to all. He has a thirst for virtues.

He is kind to illiterate men.

He helps dead tired poor men.

He does his work carefully.

God will give success to his business

and he will give happiness to everyone.

Says Joti.



Indolence is the father of all vices.

Tell this lesson to your children in their early childhood.

An idler sows wild oats in his youth

and regrets in old age. Fie! Fie!

Idlers don’t work. They become distillers.

They hurl curses and abuse people.

An idler is never happy.

He never gets peace of mind.

Says Joti.


Affluent and lazy men become gamblers.

They play cards stealthily.

They win a game. They give away gifts to harlots.

They beat their own trumpets all the while.

When they lose entire money,

they go and work in the field.

They sell everything, their house, too.

Unclad, hungrily they wander in all seasons

asking people to give them food.

O, Idlers are shameless men.

They start begging.

Says Joti.



Idlers start a business.

They put vulgar and violent things on sale.

They don’t keep record of their financers.

They don’t prepare a balance sheet.

Like pilferers, they cheat foolish men

and show Tamasha to the working men.

People ridicule idlers in the end.

They go to dogs.

Says Joti.



Bhats have no ready money to start a business.

So they deceive illiterate men to get money.

They give a charmed string to a share purchaser.

Receipt that they give is but a sleight of hand.

If you lose your money, none’ll entertain you.

Bhats’ blessing is but hollow words.

Like pilferers, they pick others’ pockets

and then make their ways.

Says Joti.



In a share-market, a lot paper is on sale.

Brokers are real gainers. Well done….!

Purchasers hold paper and start crying,

abusing and cursing the founder.

Be damned this share business!

Shameless brokers rob foolishmen.

This business suits to idlers.

Stay away from them.



In the circle of the affluent,

cheaters bluff to other men and rob them of their money.

To get more money, they sell a piece of land.

Even they enbank sea-water to obtain more land.

Thugs prosper in this world

but finally they go bankrupt.

Those who live in their company

lose their lives and money.

Says Joti.



Sell your shares to start a business.

Keep up-to-date record of daily expenses and income.

Make entries promptly

and show profit and loss to whosoever seeks.

Stand yourself as a security for others.

Practise ethics and save others from being disgraced.

Sell shares and earn some profit

Show it to the people.

Says Joti.



Idlers start a business.

They broke into houses in the midnight.

They steal away valuables as many as they can

and run away stealthily.

Vile properties hide inside you like serpents

which cause us nuisance.

Their business will not flourish.

God will glare at them.

Says Joti.




Take bath to clean your body.

Rub your body with a cloth quickly.

Don’t avoid taking bath

or else your body will be a resort of blisters

and it will house scabies, too.

You will suffer from itching.

That’ll be your only pastime.

Native people are mangy.

Whom doctors cheat excessively.

Says Joti.



He who neglects washing his clothes

is always seen rubbing his armpits.

He grins while rubbing his groins,

relaxes when the roll of sordes is out.

He pinches hidden lice in clothes

and crushes them furtively.

Anyone who forget to wash clothes

deserves censure by others.

Says Joti.



Take bath to get refreshed.

Then start working pleasantly.

You’ll eat gross food tastily.

You’ll never suffer from indigestion.

You’ll never succumb to any contagious disease.

You’ll have a sound mind in a sound body.

Anyone who forgets to keep himself clean

won’t enjoy pleasures of life.

Says Joti.



Wash clothes to make them more durable.

Clean clothes give you the joy of wearing.

Dust and sweat putrify clothes.

Foul smell emanates from dirt.

People dislike foul smell,

so, they keep dirty men off.

Shudras don’t wash their clothes cleanly;

so, they succumb to diseases.

Says Joti.



The Creator created holy men

giving each one his share of intelligence.

First know this fact thoroughly

that intelligence is not a matter of legacy.

Practise truth to cleanse your mind

then you, O small fry, you’ll be respected man.

Anyone who doesn’t cleanse his mind

becomes a burden upon this earth.

Says Joti.


Household Dutifulness

Those who earn five

and spend ten become debtors.

Debt is like a thorn in their flesh.
























Anthropoid, with a head and trunk

of elephant, this is how, Ganoba, a freak

is depicted in books.

He rides on the mouse’s back

and blows mucus through trunk.

He keeps Antyajas at distance

but gives Laddus to Bhats

Ganu swallows a camel and strains out a gnat.

In the month of Bhadrapad people trample mud

to make Morya, a pot-bellied God.

He roams in the three worlds.

Moon God laughs at him

so he curses Him.

Bear God selected Ganesh, Krishna’s Avatar as his son-in-law.

Ganuji, the pot-bellied God becomes a bridegroom.

Brahmins make a show of his worship

and eat up ghee and wheaten cakes offered to Him by devotees.

Victory to auspicious divinity! Victory to auspicious divinity!

They applaud and sing his hymns.

They rob people of their money in the name of festivals.

Devotees generously donate to cunning Bhats.

Jatis and Marwaris cheat poor men excessively.

They build temples to win fame.

Brahmins harass people in the name of God.

Unfailingly, they’ll be ruined.

True devotees work hard

to raise their family.

O give knowledge to the illiterate, food to the disabled.

Therein lies true remembrance of the Creator.

They beguile a simple Warkari telling him

fruit lies in the recital of the name of God.

Cunning Ramdas became Lord Kshatriya Rama’s devotee.

This selfish man exerts influence on Shivaji, too.

Dadu Konddev, left Shivaji unlearned.

He induced Shivaji to donate gifts to Bhats equaling their weight.

They taught Shudars fictitious stories for their own benefit.

They were truly neglectful of religious ordinances.

Says Joti.


Aryabhatta Brahmans’ Stratagem


You should know that our Creator is the one.

He nourishes us all.

Apprise rights of man and woman to everyone

and teach everyone truthfully.

Don’t rear disparity based on politics and religion.

Consider everyone as your sibling.

O, recruit such teachers everywhere.

Bow your head in reverence before Adisatya.

Says Joti.



Our excellent Creator created everything.

Truth is his only substance.

He created humans.

We are all his children. His proteges.

Know yourself before knowing others.

Try to please everyone in your household life.

You receive what you give.

Our actions bring our joys and sorrows.

Says Joti.


Aryans waged battles and conquered Kshatriyas

Enslaved them for generations.

Aryans hatefully called them Kshudra.

Word Shudra is a corrupt from of Kshudra.

In hatred, they persecuted Shudras and disallowed their learning.

Aryans can’t bear their shadows while taking food.

Educate such illiterate Shudras.

Pray to God for their education.

Says Joti.



Aryans, the conquerors wrote religious books

and cheated Shudras outrightly like slaves.

In the past, Bhats concealed Vedas,

disallowing Antyajas to read those books.

Shudras say, ‘We are Vedic people’.

Ignorant men know not the crux of the truth.

Bring to light the hidden truth in Vedas.

and show it to the people.

Says Joti.



Christians make Bible accessible to all.

Men, women can read it throughly.

They embrace Mangs, Mahars, and Bhats warmly.

They share dinners and marriages with them.

He who knows truth can prove it.

He consoles people.

Christians, the sons of the Creator, tie us with the bond of

intercontinental brotherhood.

Says Joti.



Mohammad said, “Despite several fancies,

our creator is the one.”

He called everyone his brother and sister

and turned him truthfully for God’s sake.

Lo, he abolished caste and religious factions!

He broke idols of cantankerous men.

He broke chains of slavery

and turned many on the way towards God.

Says Joti.



Aryans and Shudras are like

two coins in the God’s mint.

It is the Creator’s grace that Englishmen are here.

They harshly condemned Bhats.

This is a ripe time to question idiocies such as,

Why are Aryans called Masters?

Why are Shudras called Slaves?

This is high time to find this man-made discrimination.

O Shudras, why don’t you think properly?

Why don’t you condemn cunning Aryans?

Says Joti.



Our poor Shudra brother toils in the farm.

He feeds his family and oxen.

To pay land taxes and local fund,

he sells some grain.

Englishmen collect all types of funds.

They open schools to win fame.

Bhats beguile Shudra children

and bluff to Englishmen.

Says Joti.



Englishmen naughtily recruit Bhats on various posts.

They recruit Bhats in villages.

Bhats, the misanthropes become teachers.

They teach playful stories of Lord Krishna to Shudras.

At the time opportune they teach legends of Shivaji, the king.

They are envious of Muslims.

Their patriotism is sanctimonious.

They proudly reproach Englishmen.

Says Joti.



Can you find Brahmins among serpents and scorpions?

Show to me if any. Tie a sacred thread round their necks.

These creepers never harass their fellows.

They hardly commit any sin.

A Brahmin is human specific.

He proudly condemns Shudras.

Shudras should donate a staff and a pair of shoes

as a mark of respect to him.

Says Joti.



Earthen pot makers rear Brahmins like donkeys

and load their backs.

Lazy Brahmin like donkeys cane working donkeys

to drive them hurriedly on the way.
After work is over, earthen pot-makers set them free

to graze on the rubbish heap.

Bhats among quadruped eat up horse’s shit

and neigh excitedly.

Says Joti.



Brahmins are rebellious.

So many are sentenced to life imprisonment in this British rule.

Brahmin lawyers prepare fake stamps

Like traitors they dupe the country cousins.

I pray Judge to pronounce Paunch Pati punishment,

and parade on ass’s back for Bhat Abhyankars.

Englishmen parade them on ass’s back.

Thus they insult Brahmins.

Says Joti.



Among all Aryan Brahmins, Peshwa was a rotten apple.

He celebrated pomp Kanpuri festivals.

In retaliation he killed Englishmen, women

and their infants too.

He shot them dead including infants !

In case saved from fire, he stabbed them.

He was a true descendant of Brahmaraksha,

a son of Satan.

Says Joti.



The vilest Brahman keeps Mangs off

and himself draws water from a cistern.

In dire need of water if a Mang dies

Brahmin will not show pity on him.

Brahmins are misanthropes, proud, cocky,

evil-doers and mischief-mongers.

They accept donations in cash in Mang’s marriages.

Bhats eat up their food, and keep them off.

Says Joti.



Aryabhatts are cunning, jealous, shameless,

reckless men who are engrossed in proud.

They oppressed the indigenous

Koli, Bhilla people in animosity.

O simple Englishmen, Why don’t you awake?

O, brothers, Why don’t you educate them?

If you don’t do this, God’ll be angry with you.

You’ll repent then.

Says Joti.



Aryans harassed indigenous Kshatriyas tremendously

and drove them away in the woods.

Kshatriyas lived on eating fruits and roots

Aryans tortured them from outside.

Bring BrahminsVedas in the light,

and read them out to people.

Their Vedic knowledge makes them slanderous and

forgetful of religious ordinances.

Says Joti.



A cow eats feces, yet Brahman calls her a mother.

He takes torturing Shudras to be a religious merit.

During Yajna processions Aryans eat beef

yet they reproach Englishmen and Muslims.

They teach fake religion to Shudras.

They eat up food in Shudras’ houses on gratis.

Bhats think of Shudras as more wicked than animals.

They themselves are deviated from the path of truth.

Says Joti.



O, Englishmen eat up beef.

So, Bhats bellow and lament loudly.

There is no mention of mowing of cows and

Aryans, the beef eaters

in the Vedas.

Earlier Brahmins oppressed Antyaja brothers tremendously,

killed them for religious offerings.

For Bhats, Mangs’ lamentation is a melody.

Bhats are truly forgetful of religious ordinances.

Says Joti.



Shudras are philanders and addicts.

Their wives are at a loss.

They squander money under influence of liquor

and, thus, make their children beggers.

Cunning Aryans bluff to Shudras teaching them fake religion.

They nibble Shudras’ food stealthily.

O, why don’t you educate these lethargic men?

Pray to God for their education.

Says Joti.


Bhats and Kulkarnis incite Shudras to fight.

They set quarrels among Shudras from village to village.

They give them loans to conduct court cases.

Bhats accept bribe from everyone.

Brahmins left Shudras unlearned

hence retaliated them perpetually.

Educate such people expediately.

Pray to God for their education.

Says Joti.



Aryans founded National Congress

and included foolish Shudras in it.

They cheat simple Shudras excessively.

Aryans eat up Brahmabeej in hotels.

Selfish Aryans make a fun of Englishmen

They ask the British for lucrative posts.

Bhat officers amass wealth

and oppress Shudras.

Says Joti.



Oh, Aryabhatts, now be prepared,

to apologize to the commoners.

You disallowed Shudras’ learning.

Now live in the company of Antyajas.

First, go and kiss Shudras and others

and conduct with them truthfully.

O, Brahmins, don’t be so ungrateful.

Don’t reproach Englishmen.

Says Joti.



Don’t entice illiterate Shudras.

Don’t scare away Muslims.

Brahmins are hypocrite.

They harass Shudras excessively.

For those cunning men religion is but all selfishness.

Their love is superficial.

Ask Kolis and Kshatriyas and they’ll tell you the fact.

No need to read the Vedas.

Says Joti.



Brahmins left Shudras, Mangs and Mahars unlearned

and gave power to their caste people.

Parshurama’s scions are very complex kind of men.

They open fire on Kshatriyas children tat! tat! tat!.

Nana, a holy Kanpuri Brahmin killed

Englishmen’s infants.

O, Englishmen why do you forget these facts?

Why are you leaving Shudras to suffer in their cruel clutches?

Says Joti.



O Englishmen, if you give top posts to Brahmins,

they’ll entice foolish Shudras.

Kill or get killed is the Jungle’s law.

Then, who’ll find the full explication of truth?

Basically, Shudras are illiterate men.

They seek Aryans’ help in whatever work they do.

If Aryans get absolute power,

no one will save Shudras.

Says Joti.



O, Englishmen, don’t sit like idlers

bring Brad Law saheb quickly here.

Pull his ears and show him the evil in the Vedas,

Aryan drunkards  and Shudras’ oppressions.

Not knowing Shudras’ predicament he writes about them.

Artificial gem seldom shines.

Empty words break no bones.

Hell to your learning!

Says Joti.



Brahmans are the Hindus’ lawyers.

They have robbed people of their money.

They cheated people in the name of religion.

And secured their own interest.

No lawyer is needed in the court of God.

Only your true devotion is counted there.

Says Joti.



Were Brahmins born from a mouth?

What God made you a Shudra?

Cunning men say, “Only an idiot will enquire

a Rishi’s family and the origin of a river.”

You should know that they wrote fictitious Shastras

and intimidiated people administering oaths.

Bhats deceived others

They monopolize knowledge.

Even today they carry on crafty practices.

Even today they cheat people excessively.

Says Joti.



Brahmans are makers of Shastras.

They worked as teachers in the earlier time.

So the mean men made us mean, too.

They announced their superiority.

Which Brahmin should we revere?

Whom should we invite to conduct rituals?

O, Non-Brahmans, think.

Be proud. We too are humans.

Brahmins are aboriginals of the Sahyadri province.

I depict them in my verses, Akhandas.

Says Joti.


Reading of Truth


Aryans eat up meat and drink wine with Englishmen.

They reproach Englishmen wearing sacred clothes.

They accept bribe while giving judgment.

They shut their eyes against injustice.

They kiss Muslim women joyously

while call Mahars, “You second-rate men”.

Call them as misanthropes

and shun their company.

Says Joti.



Lord Vitthal made of stone created this animal kingdom.

He maddened everyone in Pandhari.

A Warkari holds Vitthal’s image on his mental screen.

He sings and dances

like a boy in a girl’s attire.

Shamelessly he plays Phugadi with women

uttering Phu, Phu, Phu.

“Be happy” is a blessing Brahmin showers

on a foolish man, Warkari.

Says Joti.



Brahma gave birth to babies through many of his organs

and then turned into a hull like a scorpion.

You’ll find freaks, called Brahma and Vishnu in Vedas.

These fancies will vanish. Truth only prevails.

Why do a few Shudras attain liberation?

They become human and live happily.

O, why are you wasting your breath here?

Why are you not upholding truth?

Says Joti.



Shudras worship God, chanting loudly.

They do this to entertain Aryans and to win their favour.

They entice their fellow brothers to enslave them

and generously accord the credit to Bhats.

Don’t be in the company of Bhats now?

They’ll cheat you in the end?

Bhats gain notoriety as arch-sinners and

highly skilled actors.

Says Joti.



Brahmans eat and drink with Englishmen

and pose to be pure when they go to Shudras’ house.

They speak about National Congress to illiterate Shudras.

Compare Brahmins to Englishmen.

In sessions, they wreck a row

Shudras will die there.

Aryans will be pleased.

A true king gives full proof protection

to save naive Shudras.

Says Joti.



Make National Congress a secular organization

and conduct Aryans’ inquiry there.

Their forefathers wrote Bharudas.

In animosity they included trickeries in the Vedas.

They oppressed Muslims and Shudras.

They are truly of cantankerous type.

Make them votaries of truth

Make people in this world happy.

Says Joti.



Aryans initiated caste-system.

They kill Muslims for their gain.

For generations, Aryans is a previliged class.

They despise non-Aryans.

They divide people for their benefit

and robbed Shudras of their money in the name of religion.

Tell this to one and all :

Christians, Muslims and Aryans.

Says Joti.


A Bhat’s Song


Fill up my bowl! Fill up my bowl!

See Upadhye Bhats are grouped in five.

They come together and chatter here.

They extend hands quickly to receive donations.

They insist on you to give more donations.

Fill up my bowl! Fill up my bowl!

Caste Brahmans are smart and pretentious.

They grab your wrist to extract donations.

Then straightly they go to brothels.

Fill up my bowl! Fill up my bowl!

A Bhat couple is like a parrot and a mynah.

Together they bill and coo.

They flutter and shower kisses.

Bisk bee be Zadpat.

Fill up my bowl! Fill up my bowl!

They are greedy men. These arch-sinners wash their toes

and make Shudras to drink that dirty water.

Only they donate dirty water to others.

They rub tobacco happily.

In intoxication, they chatter, “I’ll make you my bride”.

Lakshar Pyaade Jalad.

Fill up my bowl! Fill up my bowl!

O, take him away quickly!

O, take him away quickly!

Oh, he treats Shudras wildly.

Here come heinous Brahmins.

This man is one among them.

O, my head aches severely.

Fill up my bowl! Fill up my bowl!

Snatch away his beads of rosary.

I’ll donate it to God.

Fill up my bowl!

Well, well, well, well. O, something is rotting.

Holding Pothi under their arms

they go to Shudras’ houses.

Fill up my bowl.

They chatter a lot.

Those bearded men are really a

billy-goats in human form.

Fill up my bowl.

On the pretext of giving holy water,

(they eat in clean plates)

but give out holy water in dirty bowls.

They are sluggish.

Fill up my bowl! Fill up my bowl!

They push their hands in the mouth of stone idol of a cow.

They eye on money or young bony lass.

Procurers lie in bed day and night.

Fill up my bowl.

Oh, don’t bother about them.

Many are judges, inspectors,

Some are superintendents, money-lenders, and Kulkarnis.

Fill up my bowl.

They are wholesalers and big officers.

They treat poor Shudras ferociously, wildly

nonetheless poor Shudras salute them humbly.

The Government turns a blind eye to them,

also is indifferent to them

Jotiram’s scathing words

are more delicate than flowers.

Fill up my bowl!



Hell with your vain call of unity!

An appeal is made by cunning, pretentious half-mute fellows.

O, you selfish Aryans!

You never treat Shudras like your brethren.

I quote this from

Nath Pramath Bose’s essay.

For clarification

read its English version.

He who disrespects truth,

can’t truly love his brothers.

See the policy of Brahmin servants.

They demand fees from labourers.

At home they pose to be religious,

while in offices they accept bribe.

They keep beautiful Muslim girls as concubines.

They call Mangs polluted people.

They kiss prostitutes.

They give foot rinsed water to Shudras.

They despise conquered Shudras.

To extort donations they await someone’s death.

Shakts eat meat and drink wine.

They blame Mangs and Mahars.

They worship Parshuram their deity

who killed many infants.

Nana, the Bhat Peshwa

stabbed English women and children.

He practised polygamy.

Why can’t women practise polyandry?

After the death of his first wife dies, he will marry another.

He forces and thrashes women to go Sati.

Manu, the law giver is partial.

To me, the unjust laws are an eyesore.

Koran illustrates the truth.

Ayatis outshine Richas.

Is this all your Shastras and Ethics?

Asks Joti to Bhats.



Brahmins imagined fork-tongued poisonous snake

as a holy bed of Lord Vishnu.

They made Him sleep prone

and called Him Sheshashayi.

When he feels tired due to overwork

they make Rama Babhi to press his feet.

Eagle, a snake-eater bird

serves him like a slave.

Lotus blooms from His navel.

It looks like an ape’s tail on His belly.

They broke lotus and drew out Lord Brahmaji,

a freak having five mouths and four hands.

He delivers babies through various organs.

He vomitted Bhats from his mouth.

If Brahma, a male gives birth to babies

tell me O Bhats, What’s the use of Rama

and Savitri being wives of Vishnu and Brahma?

Asexual reproduction of man?

You get all such nonsense in scriptures only.

Today we come to know the truth

that a Bhat woman and a Mang woman delivers baby alike.

Says Joti.



Quack Religious Teachers


The Creator created all creatures compassionately

making each species unique.

He proferred organs outrightly

to ease their living.

In short, let me describe man,

the cleverst in all animals.

Quack religious teachers conceive religion without using brains

He does this to cheat people excessively.

Says Joti.



God proferred a pair of eyes to man.

And fixed those in a bone socket for their benefit.

Reflection helps perceiving objects.

Nerves help in identifying it.

Without seeing Him, quack religious teachers shut their eyes

and conceive His idols in all darkness.

They called him Vishwambhar.

O, hypocritical religious teachers,

You get false satisfication.

They advise others to chant God’s name.

They teach others privately to earn their bread.

Vishnu their fanciful creation, isn’t talking,

eating, drinking with devotees.

It’s all hypocrisy.

They close eyes and thus invite troubles.

Quack religious teacher and his disciples

both will land themselves in trouble.

Was there any true Guru amongst us ?

I ask you O, quack religious teacher!

Says Joti.



God gave us a pair of ears to listen,

and to get alert while doing work.

One is pleased to hear the truth.

He becomes happy.

Hearing untrue words,

men become unhappy.

A quack religious teacher puts fingers in his ears

and hears palpations.

Cunning quack religious teachers speak about that.

Damned is his living!

Says Joti.



We breathe in clean air

and breathe out impure air through our nose.

We all breathe this life giving air

that enlivens our heart continually.

We are averse to foul smell

making creases on our forehead.

Cunning quack religious teachers do Pranayam.

They give pain to themselves.

They close eyes and try to see Him in confusion.

A quack religious teacher says,

“God resides in our body.”

They invented Brahma, a subterfuge,

and myths for illiterate men.

Says Joti.



Tongue, a boneless organ

helps us know sweet and bitter tastes.

It crunches food

and pushes it towards the throat.

We shut mouth tightly

while enjoying delicious food.

Speaking truth is the fire ordeal for tongue.

Telling lies you may land yourself in troubles.

Men become blood suckers.

Says Joti.



Quack religious teacher imagine Chakras in a body.

They claim they can produce the Creator within a moment.

Why shouldn’t birds and animals have Chakras?

Tell me how many Chakras are there in their bodies?

The Creator is invisible.

Vain are his fantasies.

They stress you the need of a Guru

and force you to choose someone as your Guru.

They defame our Creator.

Don’t cheat foolish men and don’t be their Guru.

Don’t shatter the very foundation of truth.

Says Joti.



Irrational men conceive Chakras.

These foolish men ridicule the Creator.

Like a mad man, Gurus claim

to show you the Creator.

Has any Guru ever seen Creator?

O, bring him before me.

Question these Gurus, rough diamonds,

bring them in the arena,

choose them carefully.

Says Joti.



O you quack religious teachers! Don’t flee away now

lest you will be disgraced.

If Gurujis show me the Creator,

I’ll ask them the true news.

O were you the holy father

who offered his son

in the clutches of cruel men?

Did you give Koran, Haddis to Muslims

to set quarrels between Shiyaites and Sunniets?

Were you born as Ramchandra at Ayodhya?

Did you kill Ravana to rescue your wife?

Becoming Krishna you killed your maternal uncle.

Were you killed by a Koli?

Conduct truthfully and the Creator will support you.

You’ll live in pleasant resort of bliss.

Says Joti.



A chap named Atma is born in the body.

A fop is he.

He can remember everything.

He can correlate.

Let bygone be bygone.

Don’t foolishly deviate from truth’s path.

The quack religious teacher glorifies Atman

Calling it a formless being.

Why don’t you show me Atma, a being an entity outside the body?

So, condemn such quack religious teachers.

Says Joti.



A quack religious teacher is a sluggish man,

gone away is his curiosity.

A duffer is a burden upon this earth.

He relishes hemp, so his eyes turn red.

His kiths desperately need his help.

Like Bhats, he listens to the recital of Gurucharitra.

He becomes a religious teacher to earn his bread.

He worships stone and metal idols, rings bells.

He himself eats up food which is offered to God.

His mother died of starvation.

His gimmicks were thus exposed.

Says Joti.



Guruji believes that God lives in our body.

A proud man among fools.

Body is perishable, a storehouse of filth.

How can it be a house of God.

Eat in excess and you will suffer from stinging belches.

You dislike that.

Air passes through posterior frequently

like a musical instrument at work.

Saliva percolates around a tongue.

It is like bathing without unction.

Faulty food causes nose blowing.

What’s the use of applying sandalwood on a forehead?

Quack religious teachers constructed houses for God.

Those cunning men befool others.

The hypocritical religious teacher

endeavours to enclose the Creator in a human body.

Says Joti.



Two men are walking on the road.

The man in the front stumbles and falls.

Embarrassed, he looks at others with his eyes peeled.

He fights shy if others notice him.

He painfully says, mother, O mother!

Wastes much time rolling and wiping blood.

If no one sees him,

he will rise and go away quickly.

The man walking behind him learns a lesson.

He wisely instructs others to walk carefully.

Here are two men:

one stumbles and falls down and the other just watches him.

The latter laughs at him and gets his lesson;

so, he instructs others to walk carefully.

Among these two, whom will you call your Guru?

Whom will you enclose in a cattle shed?

Says Joti.



Aryans imagine Gods taking births like humans.

Offer Him sugared water and He will drink it.

He eats food and drinks water

leaving no trace of urine or stool in his stomach.

Aryan a sinner becomes the greatest embroiler.

He cunningly conceives false ideas

and records those in his books.

Bhudevas rise against the power and meet capital punishment.

So, people ridicule them.

They groan due to illness.

How can these terristrial Gods die? O, tell me!

Was there any truthful Bhudev in this world?

If any, bring him before me.

Says Joti.


Brahmin’s Trickery

Brahmin impostors wish!

Brahmins run after mirage.

They falsely assure foolish men

that God gives them gifts generously.

They make God a sybarite being to cheat Shudras.

Indolence is an enemy.

Man should work on his own.

Cunning Bhats wish to snatch away others’ food.

Bhats do Pranayam and chant God’s name.

Shudras and others toil in the fields to feed Aryans.

Bhats should have delicious food to eat

and eiderbed to sleep.

They acquire big posts to cheat Shudras excessively.

Bhatjis aspire to become Pantoji

and make Shudras uneducated fools.

They wish to be a member of parliament

on the pretext of social service.

Shudras and others should die fighting on battlefields.

Bhudevas yearn a palanquin.

Who else than Shudras should

carry palanquin of a living or dead Bhat?

They aspire for posts in civil services.

They reproach Englishmen in sessions.

They pelt stones at Englishmen for their rights.

Joti asks you to avoid this Brahmanical mystique.

Earn your bread by the sweat of your brow.

Sing hymns of truth.


A Protest for Collecting Funds from Shudras


Brahman pupils continue their learning.

They behave with Englishmen humbly.

They flatter Englishmen slavishly.

They cheat Shudras excessively in whatever work they do.

They teach religion and ill reasoning to foolish Shudras.

They are jealous of Englishmen.

First, you awaken Englishmen

lest you’ll have to pay funds.

Says Joti.



How much land taxes and funds should Shudras pay?

Cunning Aryans survive on education department.

Tell me, how many Shudras did they educate?

How many educated Shudras are now employed?

Englishmen yearn for Shudras’ welfare.

They recruit Bhats to high posts.

Now, Shudras are tired paying heavy taxes

and feeding Bhats continually.

Says Joti.



Inspect schools from village to village.

Aryans become proud these days.

Unanimously, recruit humane teachers.

Avoid Aryan-made discriminations in toto.

Bhats teach a fake religion.

Manu is hypocritical.

How longer should Shudras pay funds?

How longer should they feed to Aryans?

Says Joti.



Young Shudras should educate

and work in the education department.

Don’t discriminate while you are teaching.

Teach to every pupil impartially.

Rid yourself of idiocacy of caste throughly.

And put Aryans to shame conducting truthfully.

Hard working Shudras pay local fund

and slanderous Aryans misappropriate it.

Says Joti.



Bhats work as village teachers.

They teach treason to Shudras.

They keep off Mang, Mahar boys.

They utilize the fund for themselves.

Brahman Pantoji gull Englishmen.

They torture Mahars.

Their religion seems to be untrue.

Local fund is reserved for the Antyajas.

No ifs and buts.

Says Joti.



Aryan teachers harass Shudra pupils

making fun of them in their class.

Caste Brahmins brag.

Snobbishly they say, “Ours is an elite class”.

Baths eat beef during Yajna processions.

They kill billy-goats in this British Kingdom.

They reproach Englishmen disdainfully.

and beguile Shudras.

Says Joti.



Aryan examiners are partial.

They give excess marks to Bhat children.

They brow-beat Shudra pupils

and frighten them in the examination hall.

Aryans, an advanced tribe, are misanthropes.

O they insult Shudra people!

Pious Englishmen give promotion to Bhats

and also set them free to torture others.

Says Joti.



Recruit Shudras in government schools.

Don’t give undue scope to Bhatobas there.

O Shudras, be teachers like Bhats

and surpass them behaving truthfully.

O Shudras, first educate the commoners.

Oppose Manu’s contradictory opinions tooth and nail.

Instead of doing this, you demand more funds

and put Shudras to shame.

Says Joti.



O Shudras, first you get educated,

and then teach village people at large.

Demand Shudra teachers to the Government.

Tell Aryajis to beg donations.

Admit Shudra boys and girls in the schools.

Make them well-disposed persons.

Whom should Shudrajis pay fund?

Why should they feed cunning men?

Says Joti.



O you teachers working in government schools!

Do your work punctually, and sincerely.

Bring the light of knowledge to Shudras.

You need neither fund nor generous aid.

Show your might for the benefit of Shudras.

Instead of doing this, you are harassing other people

and are barking the wrong tree.

Be obliged to Englishmen.

Throw away Manu’s books.

Says Joti.



O Shudras be cautious while behaving with Aryans!

Serve in each government department.

Expose Aryan trickeries

and show vanities to the people, ever and anon.

Treat truthfully to foolish Shudras.

Show them a Bhat’s stratagem.

You are true descendents of Shudras.

Show your mettle to the world!

Says Joti.

Ballad of Dassyu


On the battle-field cunning Aryans conquered Dassyus

and treated them like their slaves.

O Aryans, Dassyus were not your slaves.

Better read Vedas. Raise this issue among people.

Dassyus were mighty,

plain and good-tempered men.

They treated Muslims fairly,

and, hence, were known as their friends.

They taught lessons to arch-sinners.

They were confident.

Muslims were afraid of them

so were called their enemies.

To achieve power, Aryans defeated

innumerable mighty warriors.

O Aryans, you call yourself sons of Titans,

you twirl your moustache. Don’t you feel ashamed of that?

O Shudras! you call yourself Soloman

but sneer at others. Am I right?

You are the natives.

O, see, what is your plight now!

Compare your past with present.

You are a blot on mankind.

None appreciates you.

Dependence is the worst thing.

I see your children’s future bleak.

Think profoundly. Be a far-sighted man.

Listen, I am telling you briefly

because I wish your welfare.




Aryans oppressed Mangs

and utterly ruined them.

Hungry Shudras beg for leftover food.

They can’t flourish in this Aryan rule.

O Shudras, you forget truth!

You care not for your true honour. Oh seedless wrecks!

Sans power, you deteriorate.

Now think yourself.

You like pleading to Aryans.

and touching their feet shamelessly.

You don’t have enough food and clothes.

Your wife, your bed partner lives in distress.

She is a bag of bones.

That scabies ridden hag looks ghastly.

Aryans dine behind doors.

Shudras gulp mouth water.

Shudras served them with body, mind and substance,

even donated money to these ruthless men.

Bhudevas bless you and set you free

to live in abject poverty.

O Shudras, how could you be like shameless men?

You always roll at Aryans feet.

Read Aryans’ Manusmriti.

That’s an Anti-Shudra book.

A Bhat will continue doing rituals

till he receives money from you.

Is it not proved now?

He hates your wife

calling her Kulambin in your very presence.

I tell you the truth

that you are descendents of Kshatriyas.

I quote this from Vedas.

Keep it in your mind.



O Shudras, you are a blot on Bali’s family.

You fell in a ditch.

You’re flushed with wine.

You don’t have food to eat.

The natives ? yet hungry?

Is it not a wonderful thing?

O you brave men, you bet on

drinking foot rinsed water!

Are you not ashamed that Mulsims

and Durannis are persecuting others?

They beat common men.

They prank like monkeys.

Crop failure results in famine.

Aryans throw food at Shudras from a distance.

Don’t stop learning halfway.

In degradation, you are a blot on your family.

You win laurels and enjoy earthly delights

in the cage set by Aryans.

Are you really illustrious sons of your family?

O you are parrots among birds.

Are you really honourable persons?

What will people sing about you?

What will bards write about you?

You are penniless except having

curls of whiskers and a sacred thread to show it to the world.

Marathi chaps drink liquor.

Their women doll up in a tattered saree.

A leopard can’t change its spots.

He’s festered in traditions.

Wash a pig in Ganges and

it will again roll in the mud.



Like many others,

I’m telling you true story for benefit of Shudras.

I’ve heard about a fall

of illustrious families like Shinde, Hoalkar, Bhosale

chiefly because of their illiteracy.

Their scions have lost luster in this Brahmanical labyrinthine.

These days they strive to make both ends meet

and are tied with the chains of a religion.

Englishmen studied Vedas minutely

to find the mystique therein.

Englishmen refuted Vedic principles.

They upholded and worshipped truth.

Aryans are at a loss.

Many get converted

in their pursuit of truth.

Aryans convene sessions here and there.

They call upon people to unite. O the bond is fragile!

Think properly. Bhats are crafty.

Try to discover the truth.

Aryans’ meet is baneful for commoners.

Buddha taught a lesson to Aryans.

Many embraced Buddhism.

So, Aryabhatts pine and waste away.

They cry, beat their breasts.

They do not try lighting one lamp with another.

How can these people come under one roof?

Phulerao’s plain advice isn’t hollow.

Bear this in your mind.


King Bali

Just remember unparalleled brave hearted,

warrior kings in our country.

Here in Balisthan, the great province, came

brave Bahiroba, Khandoba and Jotiba.

Basically, King Bali was embodiment of virtues.

We often hear Kshatriya woman singing his song

on occasions of Dusherra and Dipawali?

“Let your distress be off.

Let Bali’s kingdom restore again?”

Aryabhatts came here and looted gold,

enslaved Kshatriyas.

Did this land belong to their father?

Why did Waman pushed Bali in the underworld?

Asks Joti Mali to Bhats.



Humane Prophet Mohammad


Mohammad was truly a brave warrior

who cut all his family ties for truth’s sake.

He insisted on people to forsake fake religion

and spent his entire life for God’s cause.

He wrote the Koran for others’ welfare.

He was the King of courage, the greatest warrior.

He worshipped the Creator, our guardian, who has no beginning as such.

He worshipped unalloyed truth all the while.

He was bold and hopeful.

He was impartial.

For the benefit of people,

he threw up his false pride in fire.

Only hypocrites criticize him.

He was becoming amongst virtuous men.

He fought alone,

he followed the truth alone.

Only truth backed him.

He was determinate, powerful man of sword.

He sang prayer,

‘Allah ho Akbar’.

He spreaded the Creator’s glory everywhere.

No one is a master. No one is a slave.

He eradicated caste and other disparities.

He exterminated sins and contradictions

and instilled oneness in the mind of people.

He was not glued to his earnings.

Generously, he distributed all his earnings among paupers.

He dived in human psyche,

and helped men attain welfare.

He crushed idol worshippers rebel

and turned hypocrites on the way towards God.

He worshipped the Koran as God

and taught us principle of fraternity.

So, priests glared at him

they insisted on people to continue idol worshipping.

Those hypocrites scoured the mountain

but he hid amidst the caves there.

Knavish men attempted to kill him

whom God wished to save.

They searched him hopelessly.

After his earthly departure many became his disciples.

Many arrived in Balisthan.

They found that Aryans were evil-minded.

They set Shudras from bondage.

In the spread of Islam they left Aryans in lurch

and festered them with chains of truth.

Muslims freed Aryan Dassyus

and led them on the way to God for ever.

Muslims exposed hypocrisies in the Hinduism.

They dined with Shudras in one plate

leaving behind no trace of discrimination.

They took Aryans and Mangs in mosques

and treated them like their siblings, kith and kin.

Aryans conquered Kshatriyas and established their kingdom.

Moghuls freed a few Shudras.

Caste discrimination among Hindus

mostly proved beneficial for Muslims.

Muslims warmly hugged Antyajas

and put Aryans to shame all the while.

So, Aryans make hue and cry

and play Brahmanical Shimga.

Professing equality, Muslims dine with Antyaja in one plate

so, they are all united.

Shudra kings give honour to Islam.

They carry Holy Bier to Karbala.

Muslims surprise to see caste discrimination.

They condemned Manu.

Manusmriti is the source of fictitious stories.

Like a beetle it wriggles in the treasure of Sanskrit.

Brahmins eat wheaten cows yet pose to be holy.

Why do they mock Muslims?

Aryans eat wheaten cows, yet pose to be holy.

They set quarrels among Shudras

Joti can prove that.



A Bhat extols Aryan religion.

He calls Muslim rulers as tyrants.

O, Dada, tell me,

Who freed Shudras from Bhats’ clutches?

Who turned them on the way towards God?

Who sowed a seed of frenzy among people?

Who treated Shudras like slaves?

A Bhat addressed the conquered Shudras as fiends

and wrote bad names in books in animosity.

Why do you call him Anambrahma?

Should Anambrahma despise other people?

He exaggerates while describing his forefathers,

calls them Avatar.

Aryans’ forefathers gave birth to fish and tortoise.

A sow delivered a piglet.

A worm inside a wooden pillar became man

and killed the king tearing his stomach.

Waman, the shrewd man assumed tremendous shape

and pushed king Bali in the underworld.

Aryan is Parshurama incarnate,

enemy of widows, killer of Ksatriyas’ babies.

Jaidratha  kicked the fallen warrior.

Lord Maruti fought in Lankapuri.

Bhats could hear wailing animals.

A he-buffalo read lines in the Vedas.

Brahmins became butchers while performing Yajna.

Cows ran behind them mowing.

Brahmin women got life imprisonment.

They sang hymns of Rishi. O how can I depict them?

These days Mangs and Mahars deliever Kirtana.

They play Shimga in the name of Aryans.

Bhats play woman’s role in dramas.

They behave obscenely like prostitutes.

Bhats bluff to simple Englishmen.

And always harass Shudras and others.

Bhatjis educate and become government servants.

They cheat Shudras excessively.

Aryans neglect religious ordinances, cheat Shudras

and reproach Muslims and Christians.

They look down upon Muslims

and themselves drink brandy in hotels.

They devour meat, eggs and biscuits.

They write books for their advantage.

Prejudiced Aryans interprete history.

They provoke Shudras to revolt against the British.

Shudras get enticed to serving Aryans

and abandon Muslims.

Aryabhatts founded National Congress.

It is but a backbiters organization.

They pass resolutions clapping their hands.

They saw powerful Kshatriyas in Balisthan,

so, mischief mongers ousted them.

They appeal to Muslims to unite

and to keep aside Islam for the time being.

Bhats never tell secrets.

They cheat Muslims. Double dyed cunning men.

Pallav rolls on Bhatin’s shoulder,

Her hair is like a cluster of snakes, and her heart is full of venom.

She combs hair everyday

and puts red powder on hair-line.

She swaggers.

She is hit by Cupid’s arrow. Through arch-like eyebrows

she always shoots arrows.

Bhats try to impress Englishmen.

They arrange banquets for Englishmen meritriciously.

A Bhatin takes bath and sits on the terrace

letting her hair dry, O Her skin shines brightly!

Ask David about Bhatin’s deadly sting.

She ruthlessly crushes bodily passions.

Bhatin wears sleeved Sorti waistcoat.

Bhat never gets fed up wearing unwashed silken robe.

Aryans go on pilgrimage with their concubines.

They play Phugadi at Pandhari.

Bhat makes a show of worship in Shudras houses.

Yet wishes not their welfare.

How Knavish Aryabhatts are!

They commit blasphemy.

Villains fiercely argue to impose their hypocrisy.

They criticize Muslims behind their back.

Had they written code in Arabic

they would have prescribed circumcision for Aryans too.

Mighty worries were killed in battles

listen O Bhat, importance of celibacy!

Small waist band can save your youth.

A leacher has no future.

A good man should be a plain.

Be simple and straightforward man.

You put on sacred clothes

and cause much nuisance to Antyajas.

Shudras and others eat Halal and Kanduri

but give food to Fakirs from a distance.

Like money-lenders, they rob Shudras,

serve ghee and wheaten-cakes to Bhats.

Hungry orphans see Brahmins’ delicious food from a distance.

They gulp mouth water desperately.

Bhatjis finish meal before kids while conducting rituals in Shudras’ house.

They give leftover food to the host.

They always call others illiterate.

Obstinate men write epistles.

In Congress sessions, they get many friends

and assure each other meet at Madras.

O Dada, they show no concern to Mangs and Mahars.

They rear animosity in their heart.

Aryan Brahmins cheated Shudras excessively.

Shudras frenziedly shout.

Despite carrying holy biers, they couldn’t know the truth.

They became Imam’s Fakir.

The actors play role of Narsinha

and sing Hindu songs in the Tabut procession.

Bhats drink Somras while performing Yajnas.

And eat up beef, Fie! Fie!

Bhats write fictitious tales. They kick God the Almighty?

They accept bribes, Fie! Fie!

Bhat Shastris are cunning and shameless.

They produce fake documents, Fie! Fie!

They are scared of a poisonous serpent

yet offer it milk and sweet. Fie! Fie!

Ultimately, Aryans will cheat you.

Don’t complain to me, then.

Aryans’ religion is the best.


An Epistle to Baroda State’s Shrimant Maharaj Sayajirao Gaikwad

Have a mercy upon us! Have a mercy upon us!

Bhats degraded us.

Disallowing Shudras to educate,

they shook the very foundation of our progress.

Shudras burn money.

They treat women roughly.

O shame on their manhood! They dance in Tamasha.

They listen prostitute’s songs, behave unethically.

The sinners are fatalists.

Collected tax is allocated to give Khichidi to idlers.

Workers eat chutney and bread in farms.

Bhatjis draw annual allowances and make the treasury empty.

Cultivators work, pay taxes and fill it again.

Oxen die while drawing ploughs.

Bhats extract cows in donation.

Why don’t you treat them like your kins?

Aryabhats eat up delicious food

but cultivators can’t get a piece of bread throughout their life.

Cultivators join their hands and give donations to Bhats.

No one tries to waive their debts.

You give shawls to actors, Bhat Bhikshusha.

Why don’t you give awards to the best cultivators?

Increase more tax on liquor and you’ll get more drunkards.

Why don’t you understand its evil consequences?

Illiterate Shudras are ignoramus, too.

Why don’t you be guardian of such silent people?

I am reporting the plight of toilers to the chief minister.

You are kind so I write these lines for you.

The past time can never be recalled.

The rivulets in mountain go drying up in the summer.

Exhausted soldiers on battle field know the value of water.

Residents of Varanasi know not worth of flowing Ganges.

Jotirao requests Sayajirao

to make hay while the sun shines.


An Epistle to Lakshman Jaggannath Prime Minister of Baroda State

First, let’s give advice to Lakshman.

O, let me hit the nail on the head.

Bhats know well that

Sayajirao shows a concern for Shudras.

Let’s stop those who are casting evil influence on him.

Sayajirao’s forefathers were swordsmen.

Now, I tell you immortal truth

to awaken Shudras.

I earnestly think day and night

to bring reformation in this country.

I wish to unite Mangs and Bhats

and make them dine together with upper class people.

I will be back to deliver my speech

in this province named Gurjar.

I wish success to the Prime Minister.


A Raply to the Letter of Advocate Gangaram Bahu Mhaske

I’m hereby replying to

advocate Gangoba Mhaske,

Conveying to him my message explicately.

Bhatjis left Iran in search of food.

They arrived in Balisthan and wreck a row.

Adopting foul practices they conquered brave Kshatriyas.

They enslaved and called them Shudras.

A blot on their swordsmanship.

Bhatjis don’t work to earn their bread.

They are vainglorious.

They go begging in Shudras colonies.

Aren’t they a blot on mankind?

Hey you get up quickly,

keep aside your routine work and start awakening Shudras.

Don’t eye on bread only.

That’ll make your children’s future bleak.

Bhatuji wrote fiction to enslave Shudras.

They maddened Shudras.

They speak to Muslims about National Congress.

They find faults with Englishmen.

They guide to traitors.

They chant Brahma’s name.

They feed bed-bugs.

Their sacred silken cloth is a snare

to cheat foolish men.

He eats biscuits thus deviates from Brahmanical principles.

Begging and not working is a blot on mankind.

Shamelessly they give polluted food to poor Shudras.

They think Shudra kings to be inferior.

They avoid dining with them.

They are frogs in a pond. They fear Shudras will snatch away their jobs.

Thieves are appointed as caretakers. They seduce women.

They say persistently, “Bhats should get civil services.”

Coal never gets whiter after washing.

Cunningly they say, “Bhudeva kicks Lord Vishnu”.

Will you aptly reckon them as your Gods?

O, don’t bring disgrace to the Almighty.

Shudras say, “Protecting religion is Kshatriya’s duty”.

They back Aryans while thrash Muslims.

Bhatjis set quarrels without any rhyme or reason.

Catalysts as they are; they provoke fools to fight.

Unruly Nana, tried to restore Peshwai.

He killed Englishmen like Parshurama.

They say disgracefully,

Kshatriyas are extincted now.

They utterly harass Shudras by

taunting them excessively.

Read carefully their prejudiced writing.

Think about some remedies.

Avoid living in Bhat’s spell

Tell truth to your Shudra brothers.

Bhatjis oppress Shudras.

Joti wishes to oppose cunning Aryans then.


An Epistle to Gracious Raosaheb Gangaram Bhau Mhaske

|| Akhand ||

A truly brave man enquires after his

indisposed foe and extends him help.

Let bygone be bygone.

Don’t think of taking revenge.

When his opponent recovers,

a brave man fights with him like a wrestler.

Conduct truthfully and be a successful man.

Show your success to people.

Says Joti.











My Advice to Shudras and AtiShudras

|| Akhand ||

Iran, Aryans home country is free from any discrimination.

Read Vedas and you’ll get this fact.

Gond, Bhilla and Kshatriyas are indigeneous people

while Iranians are outsiders.

Aryabhatobas wreck a row.

Patriots fought against them,

disrupted their Yajna processions,

thrashed and robbed them. Brahmins called them Dassyus.

Dushta is a corrupt form of a word Dassyu.

All Aryans agree upon this etymology.

Dassyus couldn’t identify wolves in sheep clothing.

This is how Muslims infer.

Aryabhatobas became dominant.

They enslaved Kshatriyas and called them Kshudra.

Shudra is a corrupt form of the word ‘Kshudra

The word was later brought in currency.

Parshurama searched pregnant Kshatriya women,

and made them hostage. Arrested them.

When they delivered male babies

Parshuram chopped them with his axe.
He killed his mother Renukamata,

yet became loving son of his father.

How can we reckon him as God?

Enimically they abused Shudras

calling them demons, fiends, arch-enemies.

Aryans snatched away Shudras belongings

and gave them back a little for their bare subsistence.

Their punishment to Shudras was worse than animals.

In the past, Negroes in America got such a treatment.

They harassed Shudras by all means

dehumanised them, condemned them, abused them

all the while.

They tortured them, forbade them to learn.

O, they never showed compassion to Shudras.

Not for a moment.

Was the fountain of mercy and forgiveness dried up in their heart?

Tell me, O Manuraya, tell me now.

Unclean woman can attend public sessions,

why can’t Mahars attend it?

Like widows National Congress

go dancing towards Bengal?

Why Mangs and Mahars can’t chant Mantra Aum Namo.

Whom is civil service reserved for?

Without mixing with Mangs and Mahars,

how can Bhats unite men by a common bond of fraternity?

They give suggestions to government in public sessions.

It is but a much cry and little wool.

A Brahmanical mystique.

Like knaves, Bhats encircle Shudra kings.

Like lawyers, they conduct serious arguments.

They beguile Le Warner, too.

Aryans policy is abominable.

Gopal Deshmukh elaborately discussed it.

O tell me, Is National Congress attorney to the British?

O to get united, first, conduct yourself truthfully.

Civil service is reserved solely for Aryabhatts.

That will be hazardous to our country.

I pray you to stop this nonsense.

How much shall I plead to Shudras? How often?

Bhats are stone-hearted men.

Le Warner is a plain man.

He espouses Shudras’ cause. A brother of poor men.

O, you educated Shudras, why don’t you wake?

Examine Brahmins’ mystique writing.

How longer will you watch Tamasha?

O, you are cheating your children excessively.

After a death of animal we use its skin

to make footwears.

You are a useless wretch!

Your disgrace give pain to others.

How will you defend yourself in the court of God?

You’ll be perplexed before His courtesans.

After your departure, you will be ridiculed.

Your wives will feel insulted being introduced as your spouses.

You are not quadrupeds

but wonderful humans!

You have squandered your gifted intelligence.

O you are the king of ignorant subjects.

Why do you call yourself Shrimant?

I’m sorry but let me say,

“Why don’t you die soon after your birth?”

Feast your eyes on the wonderful marvels made by the British?

Be obliged to them.

Don’t behave like ungrateful Peshwas.

That’s what I expect from you.

Think with some sense of shame,

Are we all not human beings?

Educate your sons and daughters.

Learn Sanskrit to know the Aryan fictitious writing.

Always keep my words in your mind.

You forbade Shudras’ hearing Sanskrit.

You concealed Vedas and memoirs.

O Shudras, bring to light mysteries of Brahmanism.

This is a high time.

Says Joti to you.


Hymn to Adisatya


Victory to you! Victory to you! O, my Adisatya!

With your power,

we’ll find our Creator.

Victorious Brahmins condemned Kshatriyas,

barred Shudras from learning and then enslaved them.

Aryans made them live like animals.

Becoming Bhudevas, they made them touch their feet.

Becoming Ahambrahma, they beguiled foolish men.

They never behaved prudently.

They tell others to give them delicious food.

They surpass Brahmarakshas, too!

They accept donations in the name of departed men.

They eat up everything greedily.

They never give food to blind men, handicapped, men orphans and diligent Shudras.

With the arrival of truth,

Your untrue Vedic knowledge will shrink.

O Satya, hearing your legendary stories,

Puranas make off smearing black oil on their faces.

On seeing you, hypocrites freeze with fear.

They bow their heads shamefully.

When you show compassion to foolish men,

Bhudevas shiver with fear.

O, creator you are the ocean of the divine favour.

You know truth well.

You freed us from Brahmanical snare.

Due to your blessing, we get the right path.

Now we serve our parents.



Let’s serve Satyaraja! Brightest is his splendour!

People desperately search Him. I’m enamoured of hearing his words.

Truth is vanished away. People know not their benefit.

Selfish men founded many religions.

I am finding the crux but I don’t get that.

I’m tired professing fake religion.

I am fed up behaving meanly.

Uphold truth and always remember God.

Don’t profess fake religion. Foster fraternity.

Don’t behave like Ahambrahma. Don’t neglect poor people.

Don’t wear holy clothes. Don’t be a cockey man.

Remove others’ pains and afflictions to serve king Bali.

Be self-reliant. Raise your family.

Always tell the truth. Don’t follow cunning men’s advice.

Educate Shudras and put Bhuidevas to shame.

Serve Shudra people. Dedicate your services to God.

Avoid being controversial.

Joti bows in reverence to God.











[The article ‘Naveen Shayari’ was published in Vividdnuanvistar, which includes lines from Jotiba’s poems with explicit comments. Some lines are omitted. The original poems are given here in disjointed form.]

The British established their kingdom.

So Brahmans pine and waste away.

See, how they condemn the Queen.

They eat up cream and offer skimmed milk to Englishmen.

They blame Englishmen.

They are baddies, so, think others as their subordinates.

Village Kulkarni

They set quarrels among people.

They scribble up something

and prepare reports.

They appoint their caste people as revenue officers

Kulkarnis take drinks and are highly intoxicated.

They cheat both the plaintiffs and the defenders.

They play double role: government officers and money lenders.

The common people are in trouble.

They appoint their relatives to the government posts.

They form a group of their caste people.

They sit leaning against bolsters.

They jeer at half clad people.

Minions poison judges’ ears.

They treat Brahmin criminals warmly.

They get infuriated at Shudras.



They arrange feasts.

They roll over the prostitute’s feet.

They skip reports.

Collectors are pot-bellied men.

Secretaries play tricks to get their boss’s signature.

Thus, they spoil the very purpose of your application.

They punish Shudras deliberately.

Judges leave their chambers quickly.

Secretaries ask them about laws and articles.

In their holy state, they reject the plea of the Mangs and the Mahars.

They keep Muslim women as concubines.

While giving judgements – they do favours to their subordinates.

Perturbed, they hurl shoes at Shudras.

O, they are very ruthless.

They reproach Englishmen and condemn the Queen.

They yearn to be Members of Parliament.

Rogues boldly demand their seats in the parliament.

The producers are in distress.

Brahmins’ children continue their learning.

Mali Kunbi boys are barely clad.

They walk bare-footed in scorching sun.

Pantojis collect a few pupils. But increase

the number while preparing reports.

They profess untouchability.

They give a shakehand to Englishmen.

They often quote Brahma in their teaching.

They criticise others’ religions.

They teach fake religion to Shudra children.

They poison their ears against the Queen.

They slap and blow Shudra pupils to scare them away.

They pull out their ears violently

but punish Brahmin pupils mildly.

O, how people call Pantojis to be virtuous men ?

They are unduly respected.

Shudras are crazy men.

They show least interest in learning

Pantojis write up false report.

They pose to be holy and commited men.

They promote their caste people.

No one seems to question them.

They go to class after eight o’clock and there they sit on chairs.

Pupils take roll calls.

They teach Brahmin children till ten o’clock.

Then, they pretend to be tired.

They look at sun-dial and leave the school quickly.

They have their lunch and then sleep like a log.

Then they read newspaper,

and finally they write letters.

When the sun slants, they go to school for

a short while.

If they wish, they will teach.

O, they are spoiling Shudras learning!

They teach Mali, Kunbi people in day time

and read scriptures in the night.

They bluff to other people.

They accept grains, and cash.

They cheat Shudras in broad day light.

The government recruits these hypocrites as teachers.

The advanced frogs give lessons to serpents.

They are idol-worshippers.

They tell people falsely that the religion is at stake.

They outcry unnecessarily.

The government is a naive.

Brahmins prosper in every sphere.

No one thinks of Kunbi’s problems.

This is Jotirao’s policy.

Selfish Brahmans pine and waste away.

Christians too are perturbed.

I humbly suggest to her Highness,

not to rely on Brahmans’ advice.

Don’t listen to their false reasoning.

I recommend reservation in government services

to ensure social justice.

Recruit Non-Brahmin teachers, too.

They should be embodiments of true knowledge.

Don’t enquire their caste whether they belong to Mali, Kunbi,

Mahar or Mang community.

Execute this policy. Then people will sing your hymns.

You’ll be reknowned in this world then.

Joti ardently invokes God,

to free Shudras from hands of the baddies.

















To Vithoji Bhujbal



Every cock fights best on its own dunghill.

A slut becomes a nun.

Illiterate exorcizers

take posture before engraved plates.

They burn incense and camphor,

collect ash and smear it on their forehead.

Like idlers, they contort in frenzy.

They bite their lips madly.

Like tipplers, they move unsteadily

and strike their hands on floor.

They say, ‘Shuhu, shuhu

Hun, Hun, Hun,’ while turning round and round.

These ruffians dance to the tune of drum

and show Tamasha to children.

They smear ash on patient’s forehead

and tie charmed string round his neck.

Using brush made of peacock feathers

they whisk it on ill men’s body to drive out ghosts.

They cheat illiterate people in the name of ghosts

and compel them to go on pilgrimage.

Innumerable men lost their lives

following their advice, avoiding doctors.

Investigate into such cases and sue exorcizers in the law court

and give justice to innocent victims.

If conviction is made, they will live in jaal throughtout life.

O punish these impostors!

Says Joti.


A Shudra turns round and round

exhibiting God’s presence in his body.

He takes stone idol to be a real God.

He drinks water in which Iranians wash their feet,

also eats their polluted food like a dog.

He insults his kinsmen

and helps heretics.

A pussy man can’t help his kinsmen.

What’s the use of womb that bore him?

Parasite is a disease of a tree,

It bears no fruits.

Says Joti.



O, Shudra man, why don’t you show compassion

to your own caste people?

Don’t you see the worst condition of your brothers?

With their stomachs empty, they toil in the fields.

Barely clad they wander

here and there.

They draw loans for their children’s marriages.

Brahmins extort much money from them.

Stop your trickery now,

your jugglery chun, chun.

You practise black-magic in your den.

Don’t behave proudly here in Talegaon.

Don’t fidget like artful Bhats.

Don’t wring necks of illiterate men.

Like other planets Saturn rotates in the sky.

How can it come at your feet?

Don’t be a pomp. You are a pussy man .

You are not a plain-hearted man.

Don’t show favours to Brahmas to get their polluted food.

Don’t be mean. Don’t harass us.

If you harass Shudras, you’ll surely be ruined.

You’ll repent in the end.

Don’t tarnish Lord Vithu’s name.

It is better to wipe off such people from earth’s face.

Be truthful and your life will be fruitful.

Weigh in your mind Joti’s words.



|| Akhand – 1 ||

In the dawn a cock crows.

A Shudra’s wife starts grinding flour.

In awful din, her husband wakes

and put out bullocks to pasture.

The sun rises and she sweeps cattle shed,

and carries rubbish on her head.

Despite having so many good qualities

cunning Aryans call her Kulambin.

Says Joti.


|| Akhand – 2 ||

The sun shines and she makes bread.

She puts curry pot on the exit passage of a stove.

She prepares meal, and fills it in the open round basket.

She puts it on her head and goes to the farm.

She works there with all others.

She hardly eats a piece of bread in their absence.

She donates grain to Brahmin beggars.

Gives food to Bhudevas.

Says Joti.

|| Akhand – 3 ||

There is no sprinkling of dung-mixed water

in the Shudra’s house yard.

There isn’t any Vrandavan, too.

Don’t babble.

The Shudra women hardly combs her hair.

She looks sweating.

She averses feminine airs.

She wears her only Saree throughout her house keeping life.

She eats boiled grains and butter-milk.

Shudra women jeer at Brahman widows.

Why should we blame Aryans?

Says Joti.


|| Akhand – 4 ||

Shudra women carry water-pitchers

alongside their waists.

She mixes rubbish in the dung.

She tugs in saree and tramples dung.

She pats dung cakes in the sun light.

Like a Bhat’s wife,

she won’t idly sit on a swing under the roof.

Bhat calls such a hard-working woman a Kulambin.

They call Bhats their masters.

Says Joti.


|| Akhand – 5 ||

She puts a loaded dung cake basket on her head

and ties her baby round her back.

She goes from lane to lane selling dung cakes.

A Shudra’s mother work to earn her bread.

She don’t worship idols like a Bhatji.

She walks proudly. Serpent like locks roll on her forehead.

Slender Aryans call her a Kulambin.

They themselves are a blot on mankind.

Says Joti.


|| Akhand – 6 ||

A farmer’s wife holds a drilling pot and walks behind a drill plough while sowing Tur

Thus, she helps her husband.

In tempestuous wind and downpour

she assists her husband.

She holds a string and helps

planting saplings on the mark.

Treacherous Brahmins call

such a hard-working woman Kulambin.

Says Joti.


|| Akhand – 7 ||

Kshatriyas’ wives strain their guts

to grub out weed in the farm.

Working incessantly

she forgets to feed her baby.

She finds cow-pea pods and eat up those.

Then, she gives breast-feeding to her baby.

She sells grass sheaves to help her family.

She sets her example to a Bhat’s wife.

Says Joti.


|| Akhand – 8 ||

Kshatriyas wives enter into the standing crop

and start grubbing out weed.

They collect grass

and offer it to oxen.

They bring sheaves on their heads

in the market place.

There, they sell grass to buy oil-cake.

A Brahman finds Kulambin

such a dead tired woman.

Says Joti.


|| Akhand – 9 ||

A Kulambin cuts plants and prepares threshing-yard.

She quickly smears dung across the threshing yard.

While winnowing, she gives baskets

to a man standing on a high stool.

She moves rough brush quickly on a heap of grain.

She cuts and collects corns,

thrashes and pounds it to prepare boiled grains.

Lazy Brahmin calls Kulambin to

such an industrious woman.

Says Joti.


|| Akhand – 10 ||

A Bhat’s wife never admixes compost in the soil.

She has a snake shaped ring of hair on her head.

She never collects dung while walking behind cattle.

She never pats dung cakes on daily wages.

She never picks grain and sprinkles dung mixed water

at a Shudra’s house yard to earn her bread.

A Bhat’s wife never sweeps Shudra’s house-yard.

She never smears floor with dung.

Says Joti.



|| Akhand – 11 ||

A Bhat wife never rubs a Shudra woman’s body while bathing her.

She never applies fragrant paste on her body.

A Bhat’s wife never combs her hair. She never wipes her body.

She never washes her sarees and bodice.

She never lifts plates after meals.

She never keeps watch over shoes at her house.

A Bhat’s wife never fosters Shudra’s children

She never kisses them affectionately.

Says Joti.


|| Akhand – 12 ||

A Bhat’s wife never works in Shudras’ farms on daily wages.

She never mows crop in the field.

She never carries heavy sheaves at threshing yard.

She never cuts corns from the stalk.

She never gives open round plates nor she separates

cups of Bajara using rough brush.

She never works as a daily wage-earner

at Shudras’ threshing yard.

She never gives up feminine airs.

Says Joti.


|| Akhand – 13 ||

A Bhat’s wife never walks behind a plough.

She never picks turf-sticks thereafter.

A Bhat’s wife never breaks plods in the field.

She never carries baskets of compost on her head.

She never grubs weed and offer it to oxen.

She never takes sheaves to the market place.

A Bhat’s wife never works in the field

rather shows off feminine airs.

Says Joti.


A Critique On Swami Bandhu

O, why are you criticizing Jesus?

Now, run behind horses.

O Swami Ayyawaru tell me first,

are your caste people there on the right way?

They encircle corpse like crows.

Also encircle relatives of the departed souls to extort much money.

Aryanwarus ask Shudras to be hosts

and themselves enjoy delicious food at Shudras’ houses.

Intoxicated Swamis eat and dine in intoxication.

Swamis crush bones like vultures.

First, set right your vulture-like caste people

and then teach ethics to illiterate people.

Did you ever know the true meaning of ethics?

You misinterpreted it to win name and fame.

I’ll discuss in detail after some time.

Now, go and save your face anyhow.

If you cross limits,

your caste people will start kicking one another frenziedly.

Christianity teaches us to love our enemy.

There is uniformity in worshipping Lord.

Jesus would ride on a colt and go from village to village

He led the ignorant men towards path of truth.

Aryan’s religion is sans fraternity.

Hypocrisy is their only gift to the world.

Bhats are makers of Aryans religion.

They disallowed Muslims an entry in their temples.

Many become thieves to earn their bread.

Some become contractors.

First, cleanse Aryans’ mind

and then think of setting Christians on the right way.

Jesus is very kind to us.

He sacrificied his life for the downtrodden.

O Swami Ayyawaru, you are an honest man?

Do favour to at least one Mang or Mahar.

Bible outshines all your Vedas.

Could you bring back converted Bhats?

In Mumbapuri, you will not allow

converted men to share food with you.

Invite me and I’ll come there

to watch your trickeries.

I teach truth and ethics to Aryanwaruji.

Don’t be a half-baked cake.

I may not be impersonal in toto.

But I write this as I wish your welfare.

…. Swami Bandhu

[Dnyanodaya, September 8th, 1887]











Notes and Explanations

  1. ³Öæ¤êü¾Ö (Bhudev) – A title given to the Brahmans. A God upon earth.
  2. ¯Öê¿Ö¾ÖÖ (Peshwa) – The leader or head minister of the Maratha empire.
  3. †ÖµÖÔ (Aryan) – Name of a race of a good family noble, genteel, respectable.
  4. ‡¸ÖÖß (Irani) – relating to Persia, Persian.
  5. ¾Öê¤ü (Vedas) – The general term for the sacred writings of the Hindus supposed to have been revealed by Brahma.
  6. ´ÖÖÓÖ ´ÖÆüÖ¸ü (Mang and Mahar) – A low race or an individual of it. They are employed as executioners.
  7. ²ÖδÆü¸üցÖÃÖ (Brahmaraksha) – The ghost of a Brahman that in his life-time possessed high attainments and indulged a haughty spirit.
  8. ÃÖŸµÖ¾ÖÖ¤üß (Satyawadi) – A sincere follower of Truth.
  9. ÖŸÖß (Jati) – A religious mendicant of Jain sect.
  10. ãúÖ²Öß (Kunbi) – An individual of the agricultural order, a cultivator or a peasant.
  11. ŸÖÖ²ÖãŸÖ (Tabut) – A bier that is carried about in the Muharram by Muhammadans.
  12. ¯Öã¸ü֝Öê (Purana) – Sacred and poetical work which comprise the whole body of the Hindu theology. There are eighteen Puranas.
  13. ´Ö­ÖãôÖéŸÖß (Manu Smriti) – A code written by Manu, a saint and son of Brahma.
  14. ú»Öß (Kali) – The fourth age of the world.
  15. éúÂÖ (Krishna) – One of Vishnu’s avatars.
  16. ¸ü´Ö֍úÖÓŸÖ (Ramakant) – Husband of Rama i.e. Lord Vishnu.
  17. ²ÖӐÖÖ»Ö (Bengal) – Name of a province in India.
  18. †Öê´Ö ­Ö´ÖÖê ׿־ÖÖµÖ (Aum Namo Shivai) – An incantation or a mystical verse of the mystique name of the deity prefacing all the prayers of the Hindus.
  19. ÃÖÖòÎêú×™üÃÖÖ (Socrates) (470 BC to 399 BC) – Greek philosopher and teacher. He developed the questioning method to find out truth. He was force to drink poison.
  20. ¸ü֝Öß²ÖÖ‡Ô (Queen Victoria) (1819-1901) – Victoria Alexandrina became Queen of the Great Briton and Ireland in the year 1937. She was known as Empress of India.
  21. ­ÖÖ­ÖÖ ¯Öê¿Ö¾ÖÖ (Nana Peshwa) – He was a chief leader in the revolt of 1857. He is held responsible for carnage of Britishers in 1857. Havelock defeated him at Bithur.
  22. ¤üÖ¤Öê•Öß úÖë›ü¤êü¾Ö (Dadoji Konddev) – He was King Shivaji’s teacher who gave him lessons of administration.
  23. ÖÖê¯ÖÖôû ¤êü¿Ö´ÖãÖ (Gopal Deshmukh) – He is chiefly known for his ‘Shatpatre’. He wrote many articles in Dnyanprakash.
  24. ÁÖß´ÖÓŸÖ (Shrimant) – One of the epithets given to Peshwas.
  25. ´ÖÖôûß ãúÖ²Öß (Mali Kunbi) – A comprehensive term for the common people of the agricultural order, the peasantry.
  26. ´ÖÖêÖÖ (Moga) – Spike from fruit stalk used for sowing a field.
  27. ŸÖæ¸ü (Tur) – Name of pulses.
  28. ÖµÖ¦ü£Ö (Jaidrath) – One of the character in the Mahabharata.
  29. »ÖӍúÖ (Lanka) – Shrilanka or Cylone.
  30. ´ÖÖ¹ýŸÖß (Maruti) – A name of the Lord Hanuman, son of the wind.
  31. »Ö´ÖÖ •ÖÖ®ÖÖ£Ö – He worked as the Prime Minister of Baroda from 1886-1890.
  32. ׍úŸÖÔ­Ö (Kirtana) – Celebrating the praises of God with music and singing.
  33. ­µÖÖ¿Ö­Ö»Ö úÖѐÖÏêÃÖ (National Congress) – Name of the political organization founded in 1888.
  34. ¯Ö»»Ö¾Ö (Pallava) – An end of a piece of a cloth.
  35. ³Ö™ü­Öß (Bhatni) – A Bhat’s wife.
  36. ÃÖÖê¸ü™üß (Sorti) – The name of a country to the North-West.
  37. Æü»ÖÖ»Ö †Ö×Ö Óú¤æü¸üß (Halal and Kanduri) – A feast held by Musalmans in honour of Fatima, Muhammad’s daughter.
  38. ±úú߸ü (Fakir) – A Muhammadan mendicant.
  39. ‡´ÖÖ´Ö (Imam) – Head or chief priest among the Muslims.
  40. ­Ö¸üØÃÖÆü (Narsimha) – The avatar of Vishnu as the man-lion to destroy an infidel prince.
  41. ÃÖÖê´Ö¸üÃÖ (Somras) – Intoxicating beverage.
  42. “Ö™ü­Öß (Chutney) – powder made of chopped chillies.
  43. ׏֛֓üß (Khichdi) – A mixture of rice and split pulse.
  44. úÖ¿Öß (Kanshi) – A celebrated city and place of pilgrimage, Benaras.
  45. ÖÖë›ü (Gond) – Race of people inhabit hills, and forests. Also an individual of that race.
  46. ÁÖÖ¬¤ü (Shradha) – A funeral ceremony observed at various fixed periods. It is especially performed for a parent recently deceased.
  47. ²ÖδÆüÖ (Brahma) – The divine substance or essence as well as cause of the universe. All existencies – the divine triad are development of it.
  48. ׍ú®Ö¸ü †Ö×Ö ÖÓ¬Ö¾ÖÔ (Kinners and Gandharvas) – A celestial choristers, a class of demigods who form orchestra of the principle deities.
  49. ׳ֻ»Ö †Ö×Ö úÖêôûß (Bhills and Kolis) – A race of people that inhabit hills, forests and subsist by hunting. Also an individual of that race.
  50. úÖôêû¯Ö֝Öß (Kalepani) – A kind of punishment, sentence of life imprisonment in the jail built on lonely island.
  51. ¾Öê¤üÖÓŸÖ (Vedanta) – The theological part of Vedas. It is contained in the passages or chapters of Vedas termed upnishada.
  52. ²ÖôûßãÖÖ­Ö (Balisthan) – Kingdom of the King Bali.
  53. Ö×¡ÖµÖ (Kshatriya) – The second of the four great classes of the Hindu people or an individual of it.
  54. ´Ö­Öã (Manu) – The great legislator and the son of Brahma.
  55. Ö®ÖŸÖ (Jannat) – Idea of imaginary place called heaven described in Koran.
  56. ŸÖ´ÖÖ¿ÖÖ (Tamasha) – A diverting exhibition, a show, play, farce, mock fight, etc.
  57. ÖÖÖê²ÖÖ (Ganoba) – A familiar appellation of the God Ganpati.
  58. »ÖÖ›æü (Laddus) – A sweet-meal-ball of numerous varieties.
  59. ¾ÖÖ¸üú¸üß (Warkari) – A man that performs or a periodical pilgrimage to a sacred place.
  60. †ÖפüÃÖŸµÖ (Adisatya) – Original Truth.
  61. Öã¦ü (Kshudra) – The fourth of the four great classes of the Hindu people or an individual of it, a Kshudra.
  62. ÖÖ­Æü¾Öê (Janve) – The characteristic thread worm over the left shoulder of a Brahmin.
  63. ¯ÖÖÑ“Ö ¯ÖÖ™üß (Paunch Pati) – A type of punishment given to criminals. A hair on culprits head were cut in such a way that five stripes were clearly seen before taking him on parade.
  64. ŠúÂÖß (Rushi) – A sage.
  65. ¯ÖÓœü¸üß (Pandhari) – The city Pandharpur, sacred from the continual presence in it of Vitthal.
  66. ×¾Ö÷ü»Ö (Vitthal) – The name of a much worshipped god. He is stated to be Krishna himself.
  67. ±ãúÖ›üß (Phugadi) – A kind of wild gambol or dance.
  68. ׾֝Öæ (Vishnu) – One of the Hindu triad, who is considered as the preserver.
  69. ³ÖÖ¹ý›ü (Bharud) – An obscure and difficult stanza or a passage.
  70. ˆ¯ÖÖ¬µÖê (Upadhe) – The priest that conducts all the sacrifices and ceremonies.
  71. ¯ÖÖê£Öß (Pothi) – A book, scripture.
  72. »Öß ¾ÖÖò­ÖÔ¸ü (Lee Warner) (1846 – 1911) – He worked as a secretary in the contemporary government of Mumbai province.
  73. ¿ÖÖŒŸÖ (Shakta) – A worshiper of a divine energy under its feminine personification.
  74. ¯Ö¸ü¿Öã¸üÖ´Ö (Parshuram) – A demigod, the first of the three Ramas; and sixth avatar of Vishnu.
  75. ãú¸üÖÖ (Koran) – A religious and holy book of Muslims.
  76. ¿ÖÖÃ¡Ö (Shastra) – A treatise or system of philosophical theology.
  77. ¿ÖêÂÖ¿ÖÖ‡Ô (Sheshayi) – Shesha, the king of the serpent race, thousand headed snake, the couch and canopy of Vishnu.
  78. ¸ü´ÖÖ (Rama) – Wife of Vishnu.
  79. ÃÖÖ×¾Ö¡Öß (Savitri) – Wife of Brahma.
  80. ×¾Ö¿¾ÖÖÓ³Ö¸ü (Vishambhar) – Nourisher or cherisher of the universe.
  81. ¯ÖÏ֝ÖÖµÖÖ´Ö (Pranayam) – A rite consisting in breathing through the nostrils with certain closings and openings of them.
  82. “֍Îú (Chakra) – An anatomical division of a body, a ring. Six are reckoned.
  83. Öã¹ý (Guru) – A religious teacher, one who instructs in the Shastras.
  84. ׿ֵÖÖ (Shiya) – An individual of the sect of Muhammad’s son-in-law.
  85. ÃÖã®Öß (Sunni) – A Muhammadan who acknowledges the four successors of Muhammad.
  86. ¸üÖ´Ö“ÖÓ¦ü (Ramchandra) – The seventh avatar of Vishnu.
  87. ¸üÖ¾ÖÖ (Ravana) – The king of Lanka killed by Rama.
  88. †ÖŸ´ÖÖ (Atma) – The vivifying principle, the soul of the universe.
  89. Öֵ֍ú¾ÖÖ›ü ÃÖµÖÖ•Ö߸üÖ¾Ö (1963-1939) – He was the king of Baroda.
  90. þÖÖ´Öß ¾µÖӍúµµÖÖ †µµÖÖ¾ÖÖ¹ý (Swami vyankya Ayyawaru) (1826-1912) – He was an active volunteer of Satyashodhak Samaj which was founded by Phule. He criticized Christianity in his pamphlet in 1887. Phule severely condemned him.
  91. ´ÆüÍêú ÖӐÖÖ¸üÖ´Ö ³ÖÖ‰ú (Mhaske Gangaram Bhau) (died in 1901) – He founded Deccan Maratha Education Association in Pune.
  92. ¯ÖÓŸÖÖê•Öß (Pantoji) – A Brahman or Hindu school master.
  93. µÖ–Ö (Yajna) – An ablation, observance or act in general for the propiation of a deity.
  94. ¤üõÖã (Dassyu) – A slave.
  95. ãúôÓû×²Ö­Ö (Kulambin) – A cultivator’s wife.
  96. Ö×¡ÖµÖ (Kshatriya) – The second of the four great classes of the Hindu people or an individual of it, a Kshatriya.
  97. Ø¿Ö¤êü (Shinde) – Name of influential and powerful political family which ruled in Maharashtra.
  98. ÆüÖêôûú¸üü (Holkar) – Name of influential and powerful political family which ruled in Maharashtra.
  99. ³ÖÖêÃÖ»Öê (Bhosale) – Name of influential and powerful political family which ruled in some parts of Maharashtra.
  100. ²ÖÖü (Buddha) – A religion founded by Gautam Buddha.
  101. ²Ö×Æü¸üÖê²ÖÖ (Bahiroba) – A familiar appellation of the God Bhairav.
  102. ÖÓ›üÖê²ÖÖ (Khandoba) – A familiar appellation of the God Khandoba, an incarnation of Shiva.
  103. ÖÖêŸÖß²ÖÖ (Jotiba) – A lingam of Mahadev worshipped as a God.
  104. ²Öôûß (Bali) – The benovalent king of Shudras.
  105. ¤üÃÖ¸Ö (Dusherra) – The name of a festival celebrated with great splendour. The tenth day of the month of Ashwin.
  106. פü¾ÖÖôûß (Dipawali) – A festival with nocturnal illuminations, festival held during the concluding day of the month of Ashwin.
  107. ¾ÖÖ´Ö­Ö (Waman) – Vishnu in his character of the dwarf, in which he appeared in his fifth avatar, to prevent Bali from obtaining the domination of the three world.
  108. †»»ÖÖ ÆüÖê †ú²Ö¸ü (Allah ho Akbar) – God is great. A prayer offered by Muhammadans.
  109. †ÓŸµÖ•Ö (Antjayas) – One of any of the low classes beyond the division of Shudra.
  110. ׿ִ֐ÖÖ (Shimga) – The holi festival. To make a noise by bawling and at the same time striking the back of the hand against the mouth.
  111. ú²ÖÔ»ÖÖ (Karbala) – Processions which are led by Muslims as well as Hindus in the month of Moharram.